Responsive image
博碩士論文 etd-0013114-112258 詳細資訊
Title page for etd-0013114-112258
跨國企業之綠色人力資本管理於中國— 資源基礎論與體制理論之整合觀點
MNCs’ Greening Human Capital Management in China— Integrative perspective of Resource-Based and Institutional Theory
Year, semester
Number of pages
Advisory Committee
Date of Exam
Date of Submission
green entrepreneurial leadership, greening human capital management, green competitive human capital, environmental competitive advantage, environmental strategy, institutional response
本論文已被瀏覽 5863 次,被下載 0
The thesis/dissertation has been browsed 5863 times, has been downloaded 0 times.
The increased attention to multinational companies’ (MNCs’) corporate greening in both academic and practitioner realms has raised an important question of how companies build green competitive human capital, and finally enhance environmental competitive advantage. Integrating resource-based view (RBV) and institutional theory, this study offers a systematic analysis on antecedents and consequences of MNCs’ green human capital, and proposes a conceptual research framework. Firstly, RBV asserts that green leadership and greening human capital management (HCM) can result in an environmental competitive advantage. Secondly, according to institutional theory, MNCs have different institutional response to realign subsidiary’s green leadership, environmental strategy, and greening HCM responding to host country’s institutional context.
Combining the results of preliminary qualitative (12 MNCs’ deep interview) and empirical quantitative (212 MNCs’ sampling) methods, this study firstly proposes three different models of institution response and green human capital. Then we use Hierarchical Regression and Structural Equation Modeling to test the moderating effect and conceptual framework, and propose final model. The results show that “greening HCM” and “green competitive human capital” have mediating effects on the relationship between “green entrepreneurial leadership” and “environmental competitive advantage”. Furthermore, Institutional response positively moderates the relationship between “leadership and competitive advantage”, “strategy and competitive advantage” and “HCM and competitive human capital”. These relationships are more positive for firms with higher (more active) institutional response. This research gives some implications and suggestions for theoretical development and corporate greening.
目次 Table of Contents
Acknowledgements i
摘要 ii
Abstract iii
Contents iv
List of Table vii
List of Figure ix
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Research Objectives 4
1.3 Research Procedure 5
2. Literature Review 8
2.1 Nature-RBV and Human Capital Management 8
2.2 Green Competitive Human Capital 11
2.3 Green Entrepreneurial Leadership 12
2.4 Institutional theory and institutional response 15
2.5 Environmental strategy 18
2.6 Environmental competitive advantage 23
2.7 Green leadership and environmental competitive advantage 25
2.8 Green entrepreneurial leadership and greening HCM 26
2.9 Greening HCM and green competitive human capital 27
2.10 Green competitive human capital and environmental competitive advantage 28
2.11 Environmental strategy and greening HCM 28
2.12 Environmental strategy and environmental competitive advantage 29
2.13 Mediating effect (1): Green entrepreneurial leadership, greening HCM, and green competitive human capital 30
2.14 Mediating effect (2): Environmental strategy, greening HCM, and green competitive human capital 31
2.15 Mediating effect (3): Greening HCM, green competitive human capital, and environmental competitive advantage 31
2.16 Moderating effect (1): Institutional response on the relationship between green entrepreneurial leadership and environmental competitive advantage 32
2.17 Moderating effect (2): Institutional response on the relationship between environmental strategy and environmental competitive advantage 33
2.18 Moderating effect (3): Institutional response on the relationship between greening HCM and green competitive human capital 34
3. Research Methodology 36
3.1 Conceptual research framework and hypotheses (Natural-RBV) 37
3.2 The moderating effect models and hypotheses (Institutional
Theory) 38
3.3 Measurement and Instrument 40
3.4 Quantitative sampling and procedures 47
3.5 Sample Description 48
3.6 Data analysis method 49
3.7 Control variable 50
3.8 Confirmatory factor analysis, reliability, and validity analysis 51
3.9 Discrimination validity and composite reliability 59
3.10 Common method variance 60
4. Analysis and Findings 62
4.1. Descriptive statistics, skewness, and kurtosis 62
4.2. Compare means_ one-way ANOVA 64
4.3. Estimation of structural equation modeling 68
4.4. Mediating effect (Sobel-test) 71
4.5. Moderating effect (Multiple Regression Analysis) 72
4.6. Summaries of interviews 80
5. Conclusion and Implication 108
5.1 Conclusion 108
5.2 Managerial practice 113
5.3 Limitation and Further research suggestion 115
Reference 117
Appendix 133
參考文獻 References
Aguilera-Caracuel, J., Aragon-Correa, J. A., Hurtado-Torres, N. E., & Rugman, A. M. (2012). The effects of institutional distance and headquarters’ financial performance on the generation of environmental standards in multinational companies. Journal of Business Ethics, 105, 461-474.
Aiken, L. S. & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA.
Albino, V., Balice, A., & Dangelico, R. M. (2009). Environmental strategies and green product development: an overview on sustainability-driven companies. Business Strategy and The Environment, 18, 83-96.
Allen, J. C., & Malin, S. (2008). Green entrepreneurship: a method for managing natural resources? Society and Natural Resources, 21, 828-844.
Anderson, A. (1998). Cultivating the garden of eden: Environmental entrepreneuring. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 11(2), 135–144.
Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103 (3), 411-423.
Andersson, L. M., & Bateman, T. S. (2000). Individual Environmental Initiative: Championing natural environmental issues in U.S. business organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 43(4), 548-570.
APCO (2010). China’s 12th five-year plan: how it actually works and what’s in store for the next five years. APCO Worldwide, China.
Aragon-Correa, J. A., & Sharma, S. (2003). A contingent resource-based view of proactive corporate environmental strategy. Academy of Management Review, 28(1): 71-88.
Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the Evaluation of Structural Equation Mdels. Academy of Marking Science, 16, 76-94.
Banerjee, S. B. (1998). Corporate environmentalism: Perspectives from organizational learning. Management Learning, 29(2), 147-164.
Bansal, P. (2005). Evolving sustainably: a longitudinal study of corporate sustainable development. Strategic Management Journal, 26,197-218.
Bansal, P., & Clelland, I. (2004). Talking trash: legitimacy, impression management, and unsystematic risk in the context of the natural environment. Academy of Management Journal, 47(1), 93-103.
Bansal, P., & Roth, K. (2000). Why companies go green: a model of ecological responsiveness. Academy of Management Journal, 43(4): 717-736.
Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17, 99-120.
Barney, J., & Wright, P. M. (1998). On becoming a strategic partner: the role of human resources in gaining competitive advantage. Human Resource Management, 37(1), 31-46.
Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and Performance beyond Expectations. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1990). The implications of transactional and transformational leadership for individual, team, and organizational development. Research in Organizational Change and Development, 4, 231-272.
Bateman, T., & Crant, J. (1993). The proactive component of organizational behavior: a measure and correlates. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14, 103-118.
Berrone, P., & Gomez-Mejia, L. R. (2009). Environmental performance and executive compensation: an integrated agency-institutional perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 52(1), 103-126.
Berry, J. K., & Gordon, J. C. (1993). Environmental leadership: developing effective skills and styles. Washington, D. C.: Island Press.
Berry, M. A., & Rondinelli, D. A. (1998). Proactive corporate environmental management: a new industrial. Academy of Management Executive, 12(2), 38-50.
Bloomberg New Energy Finance. (2011). Global trends in renewable energy investment 2011. Frankfurt School.
Boxall, P., & Purcell, J. (2000). Strategic human resource management: where have we come from and where should we be going? International Journal of Management Reviews, 2(2), 183-203.
Brislin, R. W. (1986). The wording and translation of research instruments. In Lonner, W.J. & Berry, J.W. (Eds.), Field Methods in Cross-Cultural Research (pp. 137-164). Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.
Brown, L., Kane, H., & Roodman, D. (1994). Vital signs. New York: Norton.
Brown, M. E., Treviño, L. K., & Harrison, D. A. (2005). Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 97, 117-134.
Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In: K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing Structural Equation Models (pp. 136-162). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Burt, R. (1983). Corporate Profits and Cooptation. New York: Academic Press.
Buysse, K., & Verbeke, A. (2003). Proactive environmental strategies: a stakeholder management perspective. Strategic Management Journal, 24(5), 453-470.
Cairncross, F. (1992). How Europe's companies reposition to recycle. Harvard Business Review, 34-45.
Carmines, E. G., & McIver, J. P. (1981). Analyzing Models with Unobserved Variables. In G.W. Bohrnstedt & E.F. Borgatta (Eds.), Social Measurement: Current Issues. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Chen, Y. S. (2008). The positive effect of green intellectual capital on competitive advantages of firms. Journal of Business Ethics, 77, 271-286.
Chen, Y. S., & Chang, C. H. (2013). The determinants of green product development performance: green dynamic capabilities, green transformational leadership, and green creativity. Journal of Business Ethics, 116, 107-119.
Chen, Y. S., Lai, S. B., & Wen, C. T. (2006). The Influence of Green Innovation Performance on Corporate Advantage in Taiwan. Journal of Business Ethics, 67(4), 331-339.
Christmann, P. (2000). Effects of “best practices” of environmental management on cost advantage: the role of complementary assets. Academy of Management Journal, 43(4), 663-680.
Colbert, B., A. (2004). The Complex Resourced-Based View: Implications for Theory and Practice in Strategic Human Resource Management. Academy of Management Review, 29(3), 341-358
Cordano, M., & Frieze, I. H. (2000). Pollution reduction preferences of U.S. environmental managers: applying Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 43(4), 627-641.
Covin, J. G., & Slevin, D. P. (2002). The entrepreneurial imperatives of strategic leadership. In M. A. Hitt, R. D. Ireland, S. M. Camp, & D. L. Sexton (Eds.), Strategic Entrepreneurship: Creating A New Mindset: 309–327. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers
Daily, B. F., & Huang, S. C. (2001). Achieving sustainability through attention to human resource factors in environmental management. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 21(12), 1539-1552.
Davidsson, P., & Honig, B. (2003). The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 18, 301-331.
Dechant, K., & Altman, B. (1994). Environmental leadership: from compliance to competitive advantage. Academy of Management Executive, 8(3), 7-20.
del Brio, J. A., Fernandez, E., & Junquera, B. (2007). Management and employee involvement in achieving an environmental action-based competitive advantage: an empirical study. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(4), 491-522.
del Brio, J. A., Junquera, B., & Ordiz, M. (2008). Human resources in advances environmental approaches—a case analysis. International Journal of Production Research, 46(21), 6029-6053.
Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (1994). Introduction: Entering the field of qualitative research. In N. K. Denzin N K & Y. S. Lincoln (eds), Handbook of Qualitative Research, pp. 1-17. London: Sage.
Dieleman, H., & de Hoo, S. (1993). Toward a tailor-made process of pollution prevention and cleaner production: Results and implications of the PRISMA project. In J. Schot & K. Fischer (Eds.), Environmental strategies for industry: International perspectives on research needs and policy implications: 245-276. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Diestre, L., & Rajagopalan, N. (2011). An environmental perspective on diversification: the effects of chemical relatedness and regulatory sanctions. Academy of Management Journal, 54(1), 97-115.
Dillon, P. S., & Fishcher, K. (1992). Environmental management in corporations: Methods and motivations. Medford, MA: Tufts University Center for Environmental Management.
DiMaggio, P., & Powell, W. (1983). The iron cage revisited: institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48(2), 147-160.
Edmondson, A. C., & Nembhard, I. M. (2009). Product development and learning in project teams: The challenges are the benefits. Journal of Production Innovation Management, 26, 123-138.
Eesley, C., & Lenox, M. J. (2006). Firm responses to secondary stakeholder action. Strategic Management Journal, 27(8), 765-781.
Egri, C. P., & Herman, S. (2000). Leadership in the North American environmental sector: values, leadership styles, and contexts of environmental leaders and their organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 43(4), 571-604.
Engleberg, D. (1992). Is this the best community relations program in the country? Environment Manager, 3, 6-7.
Escobar, L. F., & Vredenburg, H. (2011). Multinational Oil Companies and the Adoption of Sustainable Development: A Resource-Based and Institutional Theory Interpretation of Adoption Heterogeneity. Journal of Business Ethics, 98, 39-65.
European Communities. (2003). European energy and transport trends to 2030. European Communities, Belgium.
Fernzndez, E., Junquera, B., & Ordiz, M. (2003). Organizational culture and human resources in the environmental issue: a review of the literature. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(4), 634-656.
Fischer, D. W. (1983). Strategies toward political pressures: a typology of firm responses. Academy of Management Review, 8(1), 71-78.
Flannery, B., & May, D. (1994). Prominent factors influencing environmental leadership: Application of a theoretical model from the waste management industry. Leadership Quarterly, 5, 201-222.
Gao, M. R., Huang, Y. J., & Chang, N. R. (2008). The influence of green innovation capabilities on the organizational environmental performance. Far East Journal, 25(2), 191-202.
Gerlach, A. (2002). Sustainable entrepreneurship and innovation. Centre for Sustainable Management (CSM), University of Luneburg, Luneburg, Germany.
Gibbs, R. B. (2009). Animal Studies that Support Estrogen Effects on Cognitive Performance and the Cholinergic Basis of the Critical Period Hypothesis, In: Hormones, Cognition and Dementia: State of the Art and Emergent Therapeutic Strategies. E. Hogervorst, V. Henderson, R.B. Gibbs, and R. Brinton, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Glen, J., Hilson, C., & Lowitt, E. (2009). The emergence of green talent. Business Strategy Review, 20(4), 52-56.
Govindarajalu, N., & Daily, B. F. (2004). Motivating Employees for Environmental Improvement. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 104(4), 364-372.
Grant, R. M. (1996). Toward a knowledge-based theory of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 17, 109-122.
Groenwegen, P., & Vergragt, P. (1991). Environmental issues as threats and opportunities for technological innovation. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 3(1), 43-55.
Gupta, M., & Sharma, K. (1996). Environmental operations management: An opportunity for improvement. Production and Inventory Management Journal, 37(3): 40-46.
Hair, J. F., Jr., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis with Readings (5th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hall, R. (1992). The strategic analysis of intangible resources. Strategic Management Journal, 13(2), 135-144.
Handfield, R. B., Melnyk, S. A., Calantone, R. J., & Curkovic, S. (2001). Integration environmental concerns into the design process: the gap between theory and practice. IEEE Transactions of Engineering Management, 48(2), 189-208.
Hart, S. L. (1995). A natural-resource-based view of the firm. Academy of Management Review, 20(4), 986-1014.
Hart, S. L. (1997). Beyond greening: strategies for a sustainable world. Harvard Business Review, 75(1), 66-76.
Hart, S. L., & Milstein, M. B. (2003). Creating sustainable value. Academy of Management Executive, 17(2), 56-69.
Hatch, N. W., & Dyer, J. H. (2004). Human capital and learning as a source of sustainable competitive advantage. Strategic Management Journal, 25(12), 1155-1178.
Hayton, J. C. (2003). Strategic human capital management in SMEs: an empirical study of entrepreneurial performance. Human Resource Management, 42(4), 375-391.
Henriques, I. P., & Sadorsky. (1999). The relationship between environmental commitment and managerial perceptions of stakeholder importance. Academy of Management Journal, 42(1), 87-99.
Hoffman, A. (2001). From Hersey to Dogma: an institutional history of corporate environmentalism. Stanford Business Books, Stanford, CA.
Hunt, C., & Auster, E. (1990). Proactive environmental management: avoiding the toxic trap. Sloan Management Review, 31(2), 7-18.
Ilinitch, A. Y., Lewin, A.Y., & D'Aveni, R. A. (1998). Managing in Times of Disorder: Hypercompetitive Organizational Responses. SAGE Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA.
Ireland, R. D., Kuratko, D. F., & Covin, J. G. (2003). Antecedents, elements, and consequences of corporate entrepreneurship strategy. In D. H. Nagao (Ed.), Proceedings of the Sixty-third Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management (CD), ISSN 1543–8643.
Jabbour, C. J. C. & Santos, F. C. A. (2008). Relationships between human resource dimensions and environmental management in companies: proposal of a model. Journal of Cleaner Production, 16, 51-58.
Jabbour, C. J. C. (2011). How green are HRM practices, organizational culture, learning and teamwork? A Brazilian study. Industrial and Commercial Training, 43(2), 98-105.
Jabbour, C. J. C., Santos, F. C. A., & Nagano, M. S. (2010). Contributions of HRM throughout the stages of environmental management: methodological triangulation applied to companies in Brazil. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(7), 1049-1089.
Jennings, P. D., & Zandbergen, P. A. (1995). Ecologically sustainable organizations: an institutional approach. Academy of Management Review, 20(4): 1015-1052.
Klassen, R. D., & McLaughlin, C. P. (1993). TQM and environmental excellence in manufacturing. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 93(6), 14-22.
Klassen, R. D., & Whybark, D. C. (1999). The impact of environmental technologies on manufacturing performance. Academy of Management Journal, 42(6), 599-615.
Klassen, W. (2000). Area-Wide Approaches to Insect Pest Intervention: History and Lessons. In: Area-Wide Control of Fruit Flies and Other Insect Pests, Tan, K.H. (Ed.). Penerbit University Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia, pp: 21-38.
Kline, R. B. (1998). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. New York: Guilford Press
Kostova, T., & Roth, K. (2002). Adoption of an organizational practice by subsidiaries of multinational corporations: institutional and relational effects. Academy of Management Journal, 45(1), 215-233.
Lado, A. A., & Wilson, M. C. (1994). Human resource systems and sustained competitive advantage: a competency-based perspective. Academy of Management Review, 19(4), 699-727.
Lepak, D. P., & Snell, S. A. (1999). The human resource architecture: toward a theory of human capital allocation and development. Academy of Management Review, 24(1), 31-48.
Lepak, D. P., & Snell, S. A. (2002). Examining the human resource architecture: the relationships among human capital, employment, and human recourse configurations. Journal of Management, 28(4), 517-543.
Lepak, D. P., Takeuchi, R., & Snell, S. A. (2003). Employment flexibility and firm performance: examining the interaction effects of employment mode, environmental dynamism, and technological intensity. Journal of Management, 29(5), 681-703.
Lerner, R. M. (1998). Theories of human development: contemporary perspectives. In W. Damon (Series Ed.) & R. M. Lerner (Vol, Ed.). Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1. Theoretical models of human development (pp. 1-24). New York: Wiley.
Liebeskind, J. P. (1996). Knowledge, strategy, and the theory of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 17, 93-107.
Lin, C. Y., & Ho, Y. H. (2011). Determinants of green practice adoption for logistics companies in China. Journal of Business Ethics, 98, 67-83.
Ling, Y. H., & Jaw, B. S. (2011). Entrepreneurial leadership, human capital management, and global competitiveness: An empirical study of Taiwanese MNCs. Journal of Chinese Human Resource Management, 2(2), 117-135.
Maxwell, J., Rothenberg, S., Briscoe, F., & Marcus, A. (1997). Green schemes: corporate environmental strategies and their implementation. California Management Review, 39(3), 118-134.
Metcalf, L., & Benn, S. (2013). Leadership for sustainability: an evolution of leadership ability. Journal of Business Ethics, 112, 369-384.
Meyer, J. W., & Rowan, B. (1977). Institutionalized Organizations: Formal Structure as Myth and Ceremony. American Journal of Sociology, 83, 340-363.
Miles, H., & Munilla, L. (1993). Eco-orientation: an emerging business philosophy? Journal of Marketing Theory and Practices, 1(2), 43-51.
Miller, D., & Friesen, P. H. (1983). Strategy-making and environment: the third link. Strategic Management Journal, 4, 221-235.
Nehrt, C. (1998). Maintainability of first mover advantages when environmental regulations differ between countries. Academy of Management Review, 23, 77-97.
Newton, T. J. (2002). Creating the view ecological order? Elias and actor-network theory. Academy of Management Review, 27(4), 523-540.
Nordhaus, W. (2007). A Review of the” Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change”. Journal of Economic Literature, 45(3), 686–702.
Oliver, C. (1991). Strategic processes to institutional processes. Academy of Management Review, 16(1), 145-179.
Oliver, C. (1997). Sustainable competitive advantage: combining institutional and resource-based views. Strategic Management Journal, 18(9), 697-713.
Orsato, R. J. (2006). Competitive Environmental Strategies: when does it pay to be green? California Management Review, 48(2), 127-143.
Parrish, B. D. & Foxon, T. J. (2009). Sustainability entrepreneurship and equitable transitions to a low-carbon economy. Greener Management International, 55, 47-62.
Parrish, B. D. (2007). Designing the Sustainable Enterprise. Futures, 39(7), 846-860.
Parrish, B.D., & Tilley, F., (2009). Sustainability entrepreneurship: charting a field in emergence. In: Schaper, M. (Ed.), Making Ecopreneurs: Developing Sustainable Entrepreneurship. Gower, Aldershot, UK.
Peattie, K. (1992). Green Marketing. London: Pitman.
Peng, M. W. (2003). Institutional transitions and strategic choices. Academy of Management Review, 28(2), 275-296.
Pennings, J. M. (1980). Interlocking Directorates. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Pfeffer, J. (1994). Competitive Advantage through People: Unleashing the Power of the Work Force. Boston, Mass: HBS Press.
Pfeffer, J., & Salancik, G. R. (1978). The External Control of Organizations. New York: Harper & Row.
Ployhart, R. E., Iddekinge, C. H., & MacKenzie, W. I. (2011). Acquiring and developing human capital in service contexts: The interconnectedness of human capital resources. Academy of Management Journal, 54(2), 353-367.
Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research: problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12(3), 531-544.
Porter, M. E. (1985). Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. New York: The Free Press.
Porter, M. E. (1991). America’s green strategy. Scientific American, 264(4), 96.
Porter, M. E., & van der Linde, C. (1995). Green and competitive: ending the stalemate. Harvard Business Review, September-October, 121-134.
Roome, N., & Wijen, F. (2006). Stakeholder power and organizational learning in corporate environmental management. Organization Studies, 27(2), 235-263.
Rosen, C. M. (2001). Environmental strategy and competitive advantage: an introduction. California Management Review, 43(3), 8-15.
Russo, M. V., & Fouts, P. A. (1997). A resource-based perspective on corporate environmental performance and profitability. Academy of Management Journal, 40(3), 534-559.
Sarkis, J. (1995). Manufacturing strategy and environmental consciousness. Technovation, 15(2), 79-97.
Sarkis, J., & Cordeiro, J. (2001). An empirical evaluation of environmental efficiencies and firm performance: pollution prevention versus end-of-pipe practice. European Journal of Operational Research, 135(1), 102-113.
Sarkis, J., Gonzalez-Torre, P., & Adenso-Diaz, B. (2010). Stakeholder pressure and the adoption of environmental practices: the mediating effect of training. Journal of Operations Management, 28(2), 163-176.
Schmidheiny, S. (1992). Changing Course. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Schultz, T. W. (1961). Investment in human capital. American Economic Review, 51(March), 1-17.
Scott, W. R. (1995). Institutions and Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217-226.
Sharma, S. & Vredenburg, H. (1998). Proactive Corporate Environmental Strategy and the Development of Competitively Valuable Organizational Capabilities. Strategic Management Journal, 19(8), 729–753.
Sharma, S., & Henriques, I. (2004). Stakeholder influences on sustainability practices in the Canadian forest products industry. Strategic Management Journal, 26(2), 159-180.
Sherer, P. D. (1995). Leveraging human assets in law firms: Human capital structures and organizational capabilities. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 48, 671-691.
Shrivastava, P. (1994). Castrated environment: Greening organizational studies. Organization Studies, 15, 705-726.
Shrivastava, P. (1995). The role of corporations in achieving ecological sustainability. Academy of Management Review, 20(4), 936-960.
Shrivastava, P. (1996). Going Greening: Profiting the Corporation and the Environment. Ohio: Thomson Executive Press.
Skaggs, B. C., & Youndt, M. (2004). Strategic positioning, human capital, and performance in service organizations: a customer interaction approach. Strategic Management Journal, 25(1), 85-99.
Snell, S. A., Youndt, M. A., &Wright, P. M. (1996). Establishing a framework for research in strategic human resource management: Merging resource theory and organizational learning. In G. Ferris (Ed.), Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management (Vol. 14, pp. 61–90).
Starik, M., & Marcus, A. A. (2000). Introduction to the special research forum on the management of organizations in the natural environment: a field emerging from multiple paths, with many challenges ahead. Academy of Management Journal, 43, 539-546.
Starik, M., & Rands, G. (1995). Weaving an integrated web: Multilevel and multisystem perspectives of ecologically sustainable organizations. Academy of Management Review, 20(4), 908-935.
Stead, W., & Stead, J. (1996). Management for a smell planet: strategic decision making and the environment, 2nd edition. Sage Publication, CA.
Strand, R. (1983). A systems paradigm of organizational adaptations to the social environment. Academy of Management Review, 8(1), 90-96.
Suchman, M. C. (1995). Managing legitimacy: Strategic and institutional approaches. Academy of Management Review, 20, 571-610.
Taylor, D. W., & Walley, E. E. (2004). The green entrepreneur: Opportunist, maverick, or visionary? International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 1(1-2), 56-97.
Teece, D. J. (2007). Explicating dynamic capabilities: the nature and micro-foundations of (sustainable) enterprise performance. Strategy Management Journal, 28, 1319-1350.
Ulrich, D., & Lake, D. (1991). Organizational capability: creating competitive advantage. Academy of Management Executive, 5(1), 77-92.
Wang, C. Y. P., Jaw, B. S., & Huang, C. Y. (2008). Towards a Cross-cultural Framework of Strategic International Human Resource Control: The Case of Taiwanese High-tech Subsidiaries in the USA. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(7), 1253-1277.
Wright, P. M., Dunford, B. B., & Snell, S. A. (2001). Human resource and the resource based view of the firm. Journal of Management, 27, 701-721.
Yin, R. K. (1989). Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Sage Publications.
電子全文 Fulltext
論文使用權限 Thesis access permission:自定論文開放時間 user define
開放時間 Available:
校內 Campus:永不公開 not available
校外 Off-campus:永不公開 not available

您的 IP(校外) 位址是
論文開放下載的時間是 校外不公開

Your IP address is
This thesis will be available to you on Indicate off-campus access is not available.

紙本論文 Printed copies
開放時間 available 永不公開 not available

QR Code