Responsive image
博碩士論文 etd-0107121-170215 詳細資訊
Title page for etd-0107121-170215
論文名稱
Title
壓力事件的影響以及使用角色、規則和規範來管理壓力對組織認同和績效的影響:將事件含義管理模型、壓力管理和社會認同理論整合,以台灣半導體跨國公司內低位階、女性菲律賓籍人士為研究對象
The influence of stressful events and the use of roles, rules and norms to manage stress on identification and performance: Integrating the Event Meaning Management model, Stress Management Theory, and Social Identity Theory in a study of low-status, female Filipino expatriates in a semiconductor MNC in Taiwan
系所名稱
Department
畢業學年期
Year, semester
語文別
Language
學位類別
Degree
頁數
Number of pages
123
研究生
Author
指導教授
Advisor
召集委員
Convenor
口試委員
Advisory Committee
口試日期
Date of Exam
2021-01-08
繳交日期
Date of Submission
2021-02-07
關鍵字
Keywords
工作滿意度、員工調整、壓力事件、組織識別、事件含義管理模型、台灣、跨國公司運營、菲律賓、半導體行業、低級別女性外籍人士、跨文化管理
MNC operations, semiconductor industry, employee adjustment, female low-status expatriates, Philippines, Taiwan, stressful events, Organizational Identification, job satisfaction, cross-cultural management, Event Meaning Management Model
統計
Statistics
本論文已被瀏覽 302 次,被下載 0
The thesis/dissertation has been browsed 302 times, has been downloaded 0 times.
中文摘要
跨國公司運營部門的大部分員工多由國外引進僱用的"女性員工"所組成(即:低位階外派人員),此狀況亦產生了一與女性密切相關的工作場域現象。台灣半導體跨國公司依賴大多數在夜間工作的菲律賓女性員工。本研究整合了事件含義管理、心理壓力和組織認同理論,用以:(一)識別出針對低地位、外籍女性人士中,普遍存的特定的工作/非工作事件之壓力及導源;以及(二)檢查壓力事件和導源對組織認同、態度和行為工作成果的影響。
本研究使用了混合式研究設計,其中包括質性資料蒐整(即:與18名跨國公司高層管理人員、和30名低位階外籍女性人員及其經理/主管進行訪談)和量化資料分析(即:含88名低位階外籍女性人員及其經理/主管進行問卷調查)。質性資料內容分析並提供了低位階外籍女性人員工作/非工作事件壓力的頻次、及用於管理這些壓力事件的導源及作為發展量表的基礎。量化方面,層級回歸和結構方程模型用來分析調查資料並檢測本文所提出的研究框架。結果表明,當小組認同與工作滿意度成正相關時,非工作壓力事件與群小組認同呈正相關,與工作滿意度呈負相關;也就是說,非工作壓力事件與工作滿意度之間受到了小組認同中介作用的影響。另外,量化分析顯示。工作壓力事件和非工作導源並沒有顯示出群體認同、工作滿意度或工作適應性之間的任何關聯,這項研究提供了理論上和實踐上的貢獻,以及對未來研究的建議。
Abstract
A substantial portion of Multi-National Corporations’ (MNC) operations employees, known as low-status female expatriates are hired from abroad to live and work in a foreign country – an occurrence that is closely related to the ‘women-only’ workplace phenomenon. Taiwanese semiconductor MNCs' operations depend on foreign Filipino women working mostly during nightshifts. This thesis integrates Event Meaning Management, Psychological Stress, and Organizational Identification theories 1) to identify specific work/non-work stressful events (SE) and sources of guidance (SOG) prevalent among low-status female expatriates in semiconductor MNC’s operations and 2) to examine the influence of stressful events and sources of guidance on organizational identification and attitudinal or behavioral work outcomes.
Mixed method research design, involving qualitative data (interviews with 18 MNCs top managers, and 30 low-status female expatriates, their direct managers/supervisors) and quantitative data (survey among 88 low-status female expatriates and their direct managers/supervisors) was used in this study. Qualitative data content analysis provided the list of work and non-work SE and the SOGs they utilize for support and serves as a base for scale development. Hierarchical Regression and Structural Equation Modelling was used to analyze survey data and test the proposed research framework. The results show that Non-Work SE is positively and significantly correlated with Group Identification and negatively and significantly correlates with Job Satisfaction, while Group Identification positively and significantly correlates with Job Satisfaction, it also has a mediation effect on the relationships between Non-Work SE and Job Satisfaction and negatively and significantly correlates with Job Satisfaction. Work SEs and non-work SOGs did not show any correlation with Group Identification, Job Satisfaction, or Job Adaptability, which can be explained by the qualitative data insights about the job design and the effect of culture. This research makes a number of theoretical and practical contributions to organizational research, along with suggestions for future research into the employment, management, nurture, and support of low-status expatriate workers.
目次 Table of Contents
Thesis validation letter i
Acknowledgements ii
摘要 iii
Abstract iv
Table of Contents v
List of Figures vii
List of Tables viii
2. Introduction 1
Research Background. 1
Importance of Low-Status Expatriates to MNCs. 2
Low-status Expatriates in Taiwan in the present study 3
An Introduction to the Literatures considered. 4
Expatriates Adjustment to Stressful Events 6
Research Objectives 8
Overview of Research Methods 10
Theory contributions 12
Practical implications 14
Organization of the Dissertation 15
3. Research Motivation 16
International workforce within an MNC 16
Expatriates and migrants. 17
Gender in International Business and Management 24
Implications of Gender in Management Research. 27
Gender in IHRM and Expatriate Management. 28
4. Literature review 30
Research Model 30
Stress in Organizations: Its Origins and Management. 31
Psychological Basis of Organizational Stress Theory 34
Social Identification Theory 36
Stress : Concepts of Events and Identity Threats 39
Event Meaning Management Model 43
Non-work stressful events 46
Roles, Rules and Norms as Sources of Guidance to Handle Stressful Events 47
Roles in the EMM Model 49
Organizational Identification Outcomes 51
5. Research Methodology 55
Research Design 56
Qualitative study 57
Selecting the company 57
Interviews with top managers of a semiconductor MNC 58
Interviews with low-status female expatriates and their managers/supervisors 60
Interview Data Analysis 65
Quantitative Study 70
Survey Measures 70
6. Analysis and Results 74
Data Analysis 74
Measurement model 77
Structural Model 80
7. Discussions, Conclusions, and Contributions 84
Stressful events among low-status female expatriates 84
Identification, attitudes, and behavior outcomes 86
Theoretical contributions 89
Practical implications 90
8. Limitation and Future Research Directions 92
APPENDIX A: Description of Work Events in the Literature 94
APPENDIX B: Details of the MNC in this Study 100
APPENDIX C: Interviewees Top Managers in the MNC 101
APPENDIX D: Interview Script for Top Managers 102
APPENDIX E: Interview Script for Low-Status Expatriates and Their Managers/Supervisors 103
References 104
參考文獻 References
Acker, J. (2006). Inequality Regimes:Gender, Class, and Race in Organizations. 20(4), 441-464. doi:10.1177/0891243206289499
Adler, N. J. (2002). Global managers: no longer men alone. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 13(5), 743-760. doi:10.1080/09585190210125895
Adler, N. J., Aycan, Z. J. A. R. o. O. P., & Behavior, O. (2018). Cross-cultural interaction: What we know and what we need to know. 5, 307-333.
Al Ariss, A., Koall, I., Özbilgin, M., & Suutari, V. J. J. o. M. D. (2012). Careers of skilled migrants: towards a theoretical and methodological expansion.
Ali, F., Kim, W. G., & Ryu, K. J. T. M. (2016). The effect of physical environment on passenger delight and satisfaction: Moderating effect of national identity. 57, 213-224.
Amante, M. S. J. I. j. o. h. r. m. (1993). Tensions in industrial democracy and human resource management: a case study of Japanese enterprises in the Philippines. 4(1), 129-158.
Andresen, M., Bergdolt, F., Margenfeld, J., & Dickmann, M. J. T. I. J. o. H. R. M. (2014). Addressing international mobility confusion–developing definitions and differentiations for self-initiated and assigned expatriates as well as migrants. 25(16), 2295-2318.
Andresen, M., Dickmann, M., & Suutari, V. (2018). Typologies of internationally mobile employees. In The Management of Global Careers (pp. 33-61): Springer.
Andresen, M. B., Franziska; Margenfeld, Jil; Dickmann, Michael. (2014). Addressing international mobility confusion – developing definitions and differentiations for self-initiated and assigned expatriates as well as migrants. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(16), 2295-2318. doi:10.1080/09585192.2013.877058
Ariss, A. A., & Crowley-Henry, M. J. C. D. I. (2013). Self-initiated expatriation and migration in the management literature: Present theorizations and future research directions. 18(1), 78-96.
Ashford, S. J., & Taylor, M. S. (1990). Adaptation to work transitions: An integrative approach. Research in personnel and human resources management(8), 1-39.
Ashforth, B. E., Harrison, S. H., & Corley, K. G. (2008). Identification in Organizations: An Examination of Four Fundamental Questions. Journal of Management, 34(3), 325-374. doi:10.1177/0149206308316059
Ashforth, B. E., & Mael, F. (1989). Social Identity Theory and the Organization. 14(1), 20-39. doi:10.5465/amr.1989.4278999
Ashforth, B. E., & Schinoff, B. S. (2016). Identity Under Construction: How Individuals Come to Define Themselves in Organizations. 3(1), 111-137. doi:10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-041015-062322
Avanzi, L., van Dick, R., Fraccaroli, F., & Sarchielli, G. (2012). The downside of organizational identification: Relations between identification, workaholism and well-being. Work & Stress, 26(3), 289-307. doi:10.1080/02678373.2012.712291
Aycan, Z. (1997). Acculturation of expatriate managers: A process model of adjustment and performance.
Bartunek, J. M., & Seo, M.-G. J. J. o. O. B. (2002). Qualitative research can add new meanings to quantitative research. 237-242.
Baruch, Y., Dickmann, M., Altman, Y., & Bournois, F. (2013a). Exploring international work: types and dimensions of global careers. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(12), 2369-2393. doi:10.1080/09585192.2013.781435
Baruch, Y., Dickmann, M., Altman, Y., & Bournois, F. J. T. I. J. o. H. R. M. (2013b). Exploring international work: Types and dimensions of global careers. 24(12), 2369-2393.
Baruch, Y., & Reis, C. (2015). Global career challenges for women crossing international borders. In Handbook of Gendered Careers in Management: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Berry, D. P. (2009). EXPATRIATES, MIGRANTS, GENDER, RACE, AND CLASS. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2009(1), 1-6. doi:10.5465/ambpp.2009.44246847
Berry, D. P., Bell, M. P. J. G., Work, & Organization. (2012). ‘Expatriates’: gender, race and class distinctions in international management. 19(1), 10-28.
Bhagat, R. S. J. A. o. M. R. (1983). Effects of stressful life events on individual performance effectiveness and work adjustment processes within organizational settings: A research model. 8(4), 660-671.
Black, J. S., Mendenhall, M., & Oddou, G. (1991). Toward a Comprehensive Model of International Adjustment: An Integration of Multiple Theoretical Perspectives. 16(2), 291-317. doi:10.5465/amr.1991.4278938
Brewster, C., Mayrhofer, W., & Farndale, E. (2018). Handbook of research on comparative human resource management. . Edward Elgar Publishing.
Briscoe, D., Schuler, R. S., & Claus, L. (2009). International human resource management.(3rd ed.). . London: Routledge.
Brislin, R. W. (Producer). (1986). The wording and translation of research instruments. Field methods in cross-cultural research.
Buckley, P. J. (2002). Is the International Business Research Agenda Running Out of Steam? Journal of international business studies, 33(2), 365-373. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8491021
Bullough, A., Moore, F., Kalafatoglu, T. J. C. C., & Management, S. (2017). Research on women in international business and management: then, now, and next.
Burke, R. J., Matthiesen, S. B., Einarsen, S., Fiskenbaum, L., & Soiland, V. J. G. i. M. A. I. J. (2008). Gender differences in work experiences and satisfactions of Norwegian oil rig workers.
Burke, R. J., & Ng, E. J. H. R. M. R. (2006). The changing nature of work and organizations: Implications for human resource management. 16(2), 86-94.
Campbell, J. P., McCloy, R. A., Oppler, S. H., & Sager, C. E. J. P. s. i. o. (1993). A theory of performance. 3570, 35-70.
Cantwell, J., & Brannen, M. Y. (2016). The changing nature of the international business field, and the progress of JIBS. Journal of international business studies, 47(9), 1023-1031. doi:10.1057/s41267-016-0041-0
Caraway, T. L. (2007). Assembling women: The feminization of global manufacturing: Cornell University Press.
Carver, C. S., & Connor-Smith, J. J. A. r. o. p. (2010). Personality and coping. 61, 679-704.
Cerdin, J.-L., & Selmer, J. (2014). Who is a self-initiated expatriate? Towards conceptual clarity of a common notion. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(9), 1281-1301. doi:10.1080/09585192.2013.863793
Chin, W. W. (2010). How to write up and report PLS analyses. In Handbook of partial least squares (pp. 655-690): Springer.
Chin, W. W., Marcolin, B. L., & Newsted, P. R. J. I. s. r. (2003). A partial least squares latent variable modeling approach for measuring interaction effects: Results from a Monte Carlo simulation study and an electronic-mail emotion/adoption study. 14(2), 189-217.
Chin, W. W., Peterson, R. A., Brown, S. P. J. J. o. m. t., & practice. (2008). Structural equation modeling in marketing: Some practical reminders. 16(4), 287-298.
Conway, J. M., Lance, C. E. J. J. o. B., & Psychology. (2010). What reviewers should expect from authors regarding common method bias in organizational research. 25(3), 325-334.
Cooper, C. L., Sloan, S. J., & Williams, S. (1988). Occupational Stress Indicator: Management Set: Nfer-Nelson Windsor.
Costello, A. B., Osborne, J. J. P. a., research,, & evaluation. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. 10(1), 7.
Cox, T. (1987). Stress, coping and problem solving. . Work & Stress,, 1(1),, 5-14.
Dalton, M., & Chrobot-Mason, D. J. I. J. o. C. C. M. (2007). A theoretical exploration of manager and employee social identity, cultural values and identity conflict management. 7(2), 169-183.
DBGAS. (2019). Taipei City Statistical Yearbook. Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics (DBGAS) of Executive Yuan, Taipei City Government.
DeLongis, A., Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1988). The impact of daily stress on health and mood: Psychological and social resources as mediators. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(3), , 486–495. .
Doherty, N., Richardson, J., & Thorn, K. (2013). Self‐initiated expatriation and self‐initiated expatriates: Clarification of the research stream. Career Development International, 18(1), 97-112. doi:10.1108/13620431311305971
Doherty, N., Richardson, J., & Thorn, K. J. C. D. I. (2013). Self‐initiated expatriation and self‐initiated expatriates.
Eden, L., & Gupta Susan, F. (2017). Culture and context matter: gender in international business and management. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 24(2), 194-210. doi:10.1108/CCSM-02-2017-0020
Evers, A., Frese, M., Cooper, C. L. J. J. o. O., & Psychology, O. (2000). Revisions and further developments of the Occupational Stress Indicator: LISREL results from four Dutch studies. 73(2), 221-240.
Fabrigar, L. R., Wegener, D. T., MacCallum, R. C., & Strahan, E. J. J. P. m. (1999). Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. 4(3), 272.
Faragher, E., Cooper, C., Cartwright, S. J. S., & Stress, H. J. o. t. I. S. f. t. I. o. (2004). A shortened stress evaluation tool (ASSET). 20(4), 189-201.
Feldman, D. C., & Thomas, D. C. (1991). From desert shield to desert storm: Life as an expatriate in Saudi Arabia during the Persian Gulf crisis. Organizational Dynamics, 20(2), 37-46. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616(91)90070-P
Freeman, C. (2000). High tech and high heels in the global economy: Women, work, and pink-collar identities in the Caribbean: Duke University Press.
French, J. R., Caplan, R. D., & Van Harrison, R. . (1982). The mechanisms of job stress and strain. Chichester [Sussex]; New York: J. Wiley., 7.
Frenkel, M. (2017). Gendering the MNC. In Multinational corporations and organization theory: Post millennium perspectives: Emerald Publishing Limited.
Fuentes, A., Fuentes, C., & Ehrenreich, B. (1983). Women in the global factory (Vol. 160): South End Press.
García, C., García, J., López Martín, M., & Salmerón, R. J. J. o. A. S. (2015). Collinearity: revisiting the variance inflation factor in ridge regression. 42(3), 648-661.
Gelfand, M. J., Aycan, Z., Erez, M., & Leung, K. (2017). Cross-cultural industrial organizational psychology and organizational behavior: A hundred-year journey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), 514-529. doi:10.1037/apl0000186
Goryunova, E., Scribner, R. T., & Madsen, S. R. (2017). The current status of women leaders worldwide. In Handbook of research on gender and leadership: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Gupta, A., & Kleiner Brian, H. (2001). Effective personnel management practices in the Philippines. Management Research News, 24(3/4), 149-152. doi:10.1108/01409170110782784
Haak‐Saheem, W., & Brewster, C. J. H. R. M. J. (2017). ‘Hidden’expatriates: international mobility in the United Arab Emirates as a challenge to current understanding of expatriation. 27(3), 423-439.
Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. J. L. r. p. (2013). Partial least squares structural equation modeling: Rigorous applications, better results and higher acceptance. 46(1-2), 1-12.
Hart, P., & Cooper, C. . (2001). Occupational stress: Toward a more integrated Framework in N., Anderson, DS, Ones, HK Sinangil & C. Viswesvaran (eds.), Handbook of Industrial, Work and Organizational Psychology. Work and Organizational Psychology.
Harvey, M., & Moeller, M. (2009). Expatriate mangers: A historical review. 11(3), 275-296. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2370.2009.00261.x
Hauff, S., & Richter, N. (2015). Power distance and its moderating role in the relationship between situational job characteristics and job satisfaction: An empirical analysis using different cultural measures. Cross Cultural Management, 22(1), 68-89. doi:10.1108/CCM-11-2013-0164
Hearn, J., Metcalfe, B. D., & Piekkari, R. (2006). Handbook of Research in International Human Resource Management. In Gender and International Human Resource Management: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Henseler, J., Fassot, G. J. V. E. C. W. H. W., Handbook of Partial Least Squares: Concepts, Methods, Marketing, A. i., & Fields, R. (2010). Testing moderating effects in PLS models: An illustration of available procedures. 195-218.
Henseler, J., Hubona, G., Ray, P. A. J. I. m., & systems, d. (2016). Using PLS path modeling in new technology research: updated guidelines.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. J. J. o. t. a. o. m. s. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. 43(1), 115-135.
Hogg, M. A., & Terry, D. I. (2000). Social Identity and Self-Categorization Processes in Organizational Contexts. 25(1), 121-140. doi:10.5465/amr.2000.2791606
Holden, N., Michailova, S., & Tietze, S. (2015). The Routledge companion to cross-cultural management: Routledge.
Holmes, T. H., & Rahe, R. H. (1967). The social readjustment rating scale. . Journal of psychosomatic research.
Holzer, H. J. (2011). Immigration policy and less-skilled workers in the United States: Reflections on future directions for reform.
Howe-Walsh, L., & Schyns, B. (2010). Self-initiated expatriation: implications for HRM. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(2), 260-273. doi:10.1080/09585190903509571
Hutchings, K., & Michailova, S. J. R. H. o. E., London: Edward Elgar. (2016). Towards a more inclusive view of female expatriates.
ILO. (2018). World Employment and Social Outlook: Trends International Labour Office – Geneva: ILO, 2018.
ILO. (2019). World Employment and Social Outlook: Trends 2019. International Labour Office – Geneva: ILO, 2019.
Inkson, K., Arthur, M. B., Pringle, J., & Barry, S. (1997). Expatriate assignment versus overseas experience: Contrasting models of international human resource development. Journal of world business, 32(4), 351-368. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S1090-9516(97)90017-1
Ivancevich, J. M., Matteson, M. T., & Konopaske, R. (1990). Organizational behavior and management.
Jones, T., Ram, M. J. W., Employment, & Society. (2007). Re-embedding the ethnic business agenda. 21(3), 439-457.
Joshi, A., Neely, B., Emrich, C., Griffiths, D., & George, G. (2015). Gender Research in AMJ: AN Overview of Five Decades of Empirical Research and Calls to Action. 58(5), 1459-1475. doi:10.5465/amj.2015.4011
Judge, T. A., & Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D. J. A. r. o. p. (2012). Job attitudes. 63, 341-367.
Kenski Julia , M. P. a. D. H. (2017). Types and Characteristics of Work Events: Insights from Virtual Managerial Work. IAM 2017: 10TH IBEROAMERICAN ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE, NEW ORLEANS.
Kim, K., & Von Glinow, M. A. J. J. o. G. M. (2017). Contextual determinants in disclosing one’s stigmatized identity during expatriation.
Koveshnikov, A., Tienari, J., & Piekkari, R. J. J. o. W. B. (2019). Gender in international business journals: A review and conceptualization of MNCs as gendered social spaces. 54(1), 37-53.
Kraimer, M. L., Takeuchi, R., & Frese, M. (2014). The Global Context and People at Work: Special Issue Introduction. 67(1), 5-21. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/peps.12067
Lan, P.-C. (2011). White Privilege, Language Capital and Cultural Ghettoisation: Western High-Skilled Migrants in Taiwan. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 37(10), 1669-1693. doi:10.1080/1369183X.2011.613337
Lazarus, R. S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process.
Lazarus, R. S. (1990). Theory-Based Stress Measurement. Psychological Inquiry, 1(1), 3-13. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli0101_1
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping: Springer publishing company.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1986). Cognitive theories of stress and the issue of circularity. In Dynamics of stress (pp. 63-80): Springer.
Lodahl, T. M. a. M. K. (1965). The Definition and Measurement of Job Involvement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 49, 24-33.
MacCallum, R. C., Widaman, K. F., Zhang, S., & Hong, S. J. P. m. (1999). Sample size in factor analysis. 4(1), 84.
MacKinnon, D. P., Fairchild, A. J., & Fritz, M. S. J. A. R. P. (2007). Mediation analysis. 58, 593-614.
Madsen, S. R., Scribner, R. T. J. C. C., & Management, S. (2017). A perspective on gender in management: The need for strategic cross-cultural scholarship on women in management and leadership.
Madsen Susan, R., & Scribner Robbyn, T. (2017). A perspective on gender in management: The need for strategic cross-cultural scholarship on women in management and leadership. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 24(2), 231-250. doi:10.1108/CCSM-05-2016-0101
Maitlis, S., & Christianson, M. (2014). Sensemaking in Organizations: Taking Stock and Moving Forward. 8(1), 57-125. doi:10.5465/19416520.2014.873177
Marshall, D., Metters, R., & Pagell, M. (2016). Changing a leopard's spots: A new research direction for organizational culture in the operations management field. . Production and Operations Management, 25(9), 1506-1512.
McNulty, Y., & Brewster, C. J. T. I. J. o. H. R. M. (2017). Theorizing the meaning (s) of ‘expatriate’: establishing boundary conditions for business expatriates. 28(1), 27-61.
Mendenhall, M., & Oddou, G. (1985). The Dimensions of Expatriate Acculturation: A Review. 10(1), 39-47. doi:10.5465/amr.1985.4277340
Merriam, S. B. (2015). Qualitative research: Designing, implementing, and publishing a study. In Handbook of research on scholarly publishing and research methods (pp. 125-140): IGI Global.
Metters, R. (2008). A typology of offshoring and outsourcing in electronically transmitted services. Journal of Operations Management, 26(2), 198-211.
Metters, R. (2017). Gender and operations management. Cross Cultural Strategic Management.
Michailova, S., & Hutchings, K. (2016). Critiquing the marginalised place of research on women within international business. Critical perspectives on international business.
Michie, S. (2002). Causes and management of stress at work. Occupational
environmental medicine, 59(1), 67-72.
Midi, H., Sarkar, S. K., & Rana, S. J. J. o. I. M. (2010). Collinearity diagnostics of binary logistic regression model. 13(3), 253-267.
Mitter, S., Fernandez, G., & Varghese, S. (2004). On the threshold of informalization: Women call centre workers in India. Chains of fortune: Linking women producers and workers with global markets, 165-184.
Morris, M. W., Williams, K. Y., Leung, K., Larrick, R., Mendoza, M. T., Bhatnagar, D., . . . Hu, J.-C. (1998). Conflict management style: Accounting for cross-national differences. Journal of international business studies, 29(4), 729-747.
Ng, C., & Mitter, S. (2005). Valuing women’s voices: call center workers in Malaysia and India. Gender, Technology
Development, 9(2), 209-233.
Ngai, P. (2005). Made in China: Women factory workers in a global workplace: Duke University Press.
Nitzl, C., Roldan, J. L., Cepeda, G. J. I. m., & systems, d. (2016). Mediation analysis in partial least squares path modeling: Helping researchers discuss more sophisticated models.
Olsen, J. E., Martins, L. L. J. H. R. M. P. i. C. w. t. S. o. B. A., The University of Michigan, & Management, i. a. w. t. S. o. H. R. (2009). The effects of expatriate demographic characteristics on adjustment: A social identity approach. 48(2), 311-328.
Ong, A. J. A. e. (1988). The production of possession: Spirits and the multinational corporation in Malaysia. 15(1), 28-42.
Palanivelu, V. R., & Jahan, M. R. (2014). Women Entrepreneurship in the Context of Gender Competitiveness, Opportunities, and Hurdles. International Conference on Arts, Economics and Management, 14), 22-23.
Parboteeah, K. P., Hoegl, M., & Cullen, J. B. (2008). Managers' gender role attitudes: a country institutional profile approach. Journal of international business studies, 39(5), 795-813. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400384
Peterson, M. F., Kara, A., Fanimokun, A., & Smith, P. B. J. B. J. o. M. (2019). Country culture moderators of the relationship between gender and organizational commitment.
Petriglieri, J. L. J. A. o. M. R. (2011). Under threat: Responses to and the consequences of threats to individuals' identities. 36(4), 641-662.
Phinney, J. S. (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: Review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 108(3), 499–514.
Piekkari, R. (2006). Handbook of Research in International Human Resource Management. In Language Effects in Multinational Corporations: A Review from an International Human Resource Management Perspective: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Piekkari, R., & Welch, C. (2010). The human dimension in multinational management: A way forward. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 26(4), 467-476. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scaman.2010.09.008
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. J. J. o. a. p. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. 88(5), 879.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, N. P. J. A. r. o. p. (2012). Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it. 63, 539-569.
Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. J. J. o. m. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. 12(4), 531-544.
Pratt, M. G. J. A. s. q. (2000). The good, the bad, and the ambivalent: Managing identification among Amway distributors. 45(3), 456-493.
Pulakos, E. D., Arad, S., Donovan, M. A., & Plamondon, K. E. J. J. o. a. p. (2000). Adaptability in the workplace: Development of a taxonomy of adaptive performance. 85(4), 612.
Ramboarison-Lalao, L., Madanamoothoo, A., Cerdin, J.-L., & Brewster, C. (2018). WLB and the Family Decision Amongst African Female Migrants: Culture and Religion Matter. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Proceedings.
Richard, M. (2008). A case study of national culture and offshoring services. International Journal of Operations
Production Management.
Richardson, J., & Mallon, M. (2005). Career interrupted? The case of the self-directed expatriate. Journal of world business, 40(4), 409-420. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2005.08.008
Roberts, J., & Dörrenbächer, C. J. c. p. o. i. b. (2012). The futures of critical perspectives on international business.
Roccas, S., Sagiv, L., Schwartz, S., Halevy, N., & Eidelson, R. (2008). Toward a Unifying Model of Identification With Groups: Integrating Theoretical Perspectives. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 12(3), 280-306. doi:10.1177/1088868308319225
Roccas, S., Sagiv, L., Schwartz, S., Halevy, N., Eidelson, R. J. P., & review, s. p. (2008). Toward a unifying model of identification with groups: Integrating theoretical perspectives. 12(3), 280-306.
Salamin, X., & Hanappi, D. (2014). Women and international assignments: A systematic literature review exploring textual data by correspondence analysis. Journal of Global Mobility, 2(3), 343-374. doi:10.1108/JGM-09-2013-0058
Sarason, I. G., & Johnson, J. H. . (1979). Life stress, organizational stress, and job satisfaction. . Psychological Reports,, 44(1), , 75-79.
Selmer, J., Lauring, J., & Feng, Y. (2009). Age and expatriate job performance in Greater China. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 16(2), 131-148. doi:10.1108/13527600910953892
Shmueli, G., Ray, S., Estrada, J. M. V., & Chatla, S. B. J. J. o. B. R. (2016). The elephant in the room: Predictive performance of PLS models. 69(10), 4552-4564.
Smith, P. B., & Peterson, M. F. . (1988). Leadership, organizations and culture: An event management model. . Sage Publications, Inc.
Smith, P. B., Peterson, M. F., & Misumi, J. (1994). Event management and work team effectiveness in Japan, Britain and USA. . Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 67(1), 33-43.
Smith, P. B., Peterson, M. F., & Schwartz, S. H. (2002). Cultural values, sources of guidance, and their relevance to managerial behavior: A 47-nation study. . Journal of cross-cultural Psychology, 33(2), 188-208.
Smith, P. B., Peterson, M. F., Ahmad, A. H., Akande, D., Andersen, J. A., Ayestaran, S., ... & Ekelund, B. (2005). Demographic effects on the use of vertical sources of guidance by managers in widely differing cultural contexts. . International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 5(1), 5-26.
Stahl, G. K., & Tung, R. L. (2015). Towards a more balanced treatment of culture in international business studies: The need for positive cross-cultural scholarship. Journal of international business studies, 46(4), 391-414. doi:10.1057/jibs.2014.68
Suutari, V., & Brewster, C. (2000). Making their own way: international experience through self-initiated foreign assignments. Journal of world business, 35(4), 417-436. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S1090-9516(00)00046-8
Tajfel, H. (1978). Differentiation between social groups: Studies in the social psychology of intergroup relations. Oxford, England: Academic Press.
Tajfel, H. a. T., J.C. (1985). The Social Identity Theory of Intergroup Behaviour. . In: Worchel, S. and Austin, W.G., Eds., Psychology of Intergroup Relations, 2nd Edition, Nelson Hall, Chicago,, 7-24.
Tienari, J. (2014). No gender, please, we're international management scholars! In Research handbook on women in international management: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Tjandraningsih, I. J. A. S. R. (2000). Gendered work and labour control: Women factory workers in Indonesia. 24(2), 257-268.
Toh, S. M., & Denisi, A. S. (2003). Host Country National Reactions to Expatriate Pay Policies: a Model and Implications. 28(4), 606-621. doi:10.5465/amr.2003.10899387
Tung, R. L. (1998). American expatriates abroad: From neophytes to cosmopolitans. . Journal of world business, 33(2), 125-144.
Tung, R. L., & Haq, R. (2012). International assignments to/from India: do race and gender matter? The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(2), 221-235. doi:10.1080/09585192.2011.561239
Tung, R. L., & Stahl, G. K. (2018). The tortuous evolution of the role of culture in IB research: What we know, what we don’t know, and where we are headed. Journal of international business studies, 49(9), 1167-1189. doi:10.1057/s41267-018-0184-2
Tung, R. L., & Verbeke, A. (2010). Beyond Hofstede and GLOBE: Improving the quality of cross-cultural research. Journal of international business studies, 41(8), 1259-1274. doi:10.1057/jibs.2010.41
Varma, A., Toh, S. M., & Budhwar, P. J. J. o. W. B. (2006). A new perspective on the female expatriate experience: The role of host country national categorization. 41(2), 112-120.
Warner, M., & Joynt, P. (2000). Regional encyclopedia of business and management: Business Press.
WHO. (2012). World health statistics.
Wright, T. A., & Cropanzano, R. (2000). . (2000). Psychological well-being and job satisfaction as predictors of job performance. . Journal of occupational health psychology,, 5(1), , 84-94.
Yeap, J. A., Ramayah, T., & Soto-Acosta, P. J. E. M. (2016). Factors propelling the adoption of m-learning among students in higher education. 26(4), 323-338.
電子全文 Fulltext
本電子全文僅授權使用者為學術研究之目的,進行個人非營利性質之檢索、閱讀、列印。請遵守中華民國著作權法之相關規定,切勿任意重製、散佈、改作、轉貼、播送,以免觸法。
論文使用權限 Thesis access permission:自定論文開放時間(其他) user define other
開放時間 Available:
校內 Campus:開放下載的時間 available 2027-02-07
校外 Off-campus:開放下載的時間 available 2027-02-07

您的 IP(校外) 位址是 44.200.27.215
現在時間是 2024-04-16
論文校外開放下載的時間是 2027-02-07

Your IP address is 44.200.27.215
The current date is 2024-04-16
This thesis will be available to you on 2027-02-07.

紙本論文 Printed copies
紙本論文的公開資訊在102學年度以後相對較為完整。如果需要查詢101學年度以前的紙本論文公開資訊,請聯繫圖資處紙本論文服務櫃台。如有不便之處敬請見諒。
開放時間 available 已公開 available

QR Code