Responsive image
博碩士論文 etd-0115122-000350 詳細資訊
Title page for etd-0115122-000350
The Relationship among Fear of Failure, Procrastination at Work and Social Loafing: Moderating Role of Perceived Organization Support
Year, semester
Number of pages
Liu, Yun-Shi
Advisory Committee
Jen, Chin-Kang
Date of Exam
Date of Submission
Fear of Failure, Procrastination, Procrastination at work, Social Loafing, Perceived Organization Support
本論文已被瀏覽 122 次,被下載 333
The thesis/dissertation has been browsed 122 times, has been downloaded 333 times.
本研究蒐集了包括金融保險業、傳統製造產業、高科技製造業、電子資訊業、通訊服務業、交通航空運輸業、物流業、服務業、軍公教的員工作為研究對象。本研究於第一階段回收 389 份有效問卷,相隔三週之後送出第二階段問卷,成功回收 322份有效問卷,再排除其中不適用之樣本, 最終有效及可分析樣本數為313 份。
本研究結果顯示:一、「害怕失敗」與「工作拖延」呈現正向相關;二、「工作拖延」對於「社會閒散」呈現正向相關;三、「工作拖延」能夠中介「害怕失敗」與「社會閒散」之間的關係;四、「知覺組織支持」無顯著調節「害怕失敗」與「 工作拖延」之間的正向關係。
As the external environment changes, in pursuit of high efficiency environment and the effective use of human resources. The work behavior of employees in organization becomes more important. Why do employees procrastinate? Will procrastination have a negative impact on the organization? The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between fear of failure, procrastination at work and social loafing. The further explore the moderating effect of perceived organization support between fear of failure and procrastination at work.
A survey was conducted among a representative sample of employees from service industry, technology industry, aviation industry, government, manufacturing, communication service industry and financial business. N=389 on time-1, and another survey was collected after 3 weeks, total 322 samples are successful matched on time-2. Exclude samples that are not applicable, the final number of valid and analyzable samples is 313.
The results of this study shown:
1. Fear of failure has positive effect on procrastination at work
2. There is positive effect of procrastination at work on social loafing
3. Procrastination at work will mediate the relationship between fear of failure and social loafing
4. Perceived organization support has no significant moderating effect between fear of failure and procrastination at work
目次 Table of Contents
論文審定書 i
中文摘要 ii
Abstract iii
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 4
第三節 研究流程 5
第二章 文獻探討 6
第一節 工作拖延 6
第二節 害怕失敗 12
第三節 社會閒散 15
第四節 知覺組織支持 20
第三章 研究方法 23
第一節 研究架構與假設 23
第二節 研究樣本與施測程序 24
第三節 研究工具 25
第四節 資料處理與分析 27
第四章 研究結果 28
第一節 樣本特性 28
第二節 敘述性統計與相關係數分析 31
第三節 迴歸分析 33
第五章 討論與建議 38
第一節 研究結果之討論 38
第二節 研究限制及未來研究建議 41
參考文獻 42
附 錄 47

圖 1 1 研究流程圖 5
圖 2 1 Ringelmann Effect(Ingham、Levinger、Graves & Peckham, 1974) 15
圖 3 1 研究架構圖 23
圖 4 1 知覺組織支持對害怕失敗與工作拖延之調節效果圖 36

表4-1樣本人口變項統計表 29
表4-2 敘述性統計與相關係數 32
表4-3 Model 4 模型檢定分析 34
表4-4 Model 7 模型檢定分析 35
表4-5中介效果模式 35
表4-6 研究結果摘要表 37

參考文獻 References
何雅娟、葉建宏、王志美、葉貞妮(2020) 。人格特質、過度自信預測學術拖延行為、 尋求指導頻率與修業學期數之研究。教育科學研究期刊 , 65(4), 139-170
李介至(2016)。科技大學學生任務價值、期限壓力及拖延:主動及被動拖延者之比較。 技術及職業教育學報, 6(3), 67-94
卓國雄(2008)。家長式教練領導行為、選手害怕失敗與成就目標關係之研究。國立體 育學院體育研究所博士論文。
卓誌慶(2012)。角色模糊與社會賦閒效果相關性之研究。大葉大學管理學院碩士在職 專班碩士論文。
邱炳文(2020)。在加班嗎? 加班、 加班動機與工作生活平衡之相關研究。國立中山大 學人力資源管理研究所碩士論文
洪慧芳(譯) (2011)。拖延心理學(原作者: J. B. Burka & L. M. Yuen) 。臺北市:漫遊者 文化 (原出版年: 2008) 。
徐以庭(2020)。不當督導與部屬反應:探討不當督導歸因的調節效果。國立臺灣師範 大學科技與工程學院科技應用與人力資源發展學系碩士論文
陳億昌(2016)。工作拖延傾向量表初編及相關因素分析-以國軍連輔導長為例。國防 大學政治作戰學院心理及社會工作學系心理碩士班碩士論文
彭台光、 高月慈、 林鉦棽( 2006)。 管理研究中的共同方法變異: 問題本質、 影 響、測試和補救。 管理學報, 23(1), 77-98。
黃莉棋(2017)。外派人員主動尋求建議與組織支持對外派適應之跨層次研究—資源保 存理論觀點。中原大學企業管理學系碩士學位論文
塗振洋(2005)。拖延行為的研究——量表編制及相關因素之探討。國立政治大學教育 研究所博士論文。
劉宜瑾(2013)。部落格使用者開始與持續撰寫商品評論動機之初探 -從社會交換理論 觀點。國立臺北大學企業管理學系博士論文
鄭雲卿(2020)。大學生失敗恐懼、後設認知策略與學業拖延之相關研究。淡江大學教 育心理與諮商研究所碩士班碩士論文

Ainslie, G. (1992). Picoeconomics: The strategic interaction of successive motivational states within the person. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Armeli, S., Eisenberger, R., Fasolo, P., & Lynch, P. (1998). Perceived organizational support and police performance: The moderating influence of socioemotional needs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 288– 297.
Balkis, M. (2013). Academic procrastination, academic life satisfaction and academic achievement: The mediation role of rational beliefs about studying. Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies, 13(1), 57-74.
Baumeister, R. F, & Heatherton, T. F. (1996). Self-regulation failure: An overview. Psychological Inquiry, 7, 1-15.
Becker, D., & Dwyer, M. (1998). The impact of student verbal/visual learning style preference on implementing groupware in the classroom. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 2(2). From
Beswick, G., & Mann, L. (1994). State orientation and procrastination. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann (Eds.), Volition and personality: Action versus state orientation (pp. 391- 396). Gottingen, Germany: Hogrefe & Huber
Blau, P. (1964) Exchange and Power in Social Life. Wiley, New York, NY, USA.
Chidambaram, L., & Tung, L. L. (2005). Is out of sight, out of mind? An empirical study of social loafing in technology-supported groups. Information Systems Research, 16(2), 149–168.
Ching-Wen Yeh (2015). How Does Face Consciousness Affect Purchase Intention of Cosmetic Surgery? Chiao Da Management Review Vol. 35 No. 2, 2015 pp. 81-111
Comer, Debra. (1995). "A Model of Social Loafing in Real Work Groups?' Human Relations 48:647-467.
Conroy, D., Willow, J.P., & Metzler, J.N.(2002). Multidimensional fear of failure measurement: The performance failure appraisal inventory. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14,76-90.
Conroy, D.E. (2000). Using performance failure appraisals to conceptualize and assess fear of failure. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Utah, Salt Lake City
Correia, M. E., & Rosado, A. (2018). Fear of failure and anxiety in sport. Análise Psicológica, 36(1), 75–86.
Dania, O.R., & Inegbenebor, A. (2019). The types of fear experienced or prevalent
in the Nigerian workplace. Accounting and Taxation Review, 3(3), 91-104
DeArmond, S., Matthews, R. A., & Bunk, J. (2013). Workload and procrastination: The roles of psychological detachment and fatigue. International Journal of Stress Management. Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/a0034803
Eisenberger, Robert, Peter Fasolo, and Valerie Davis-LaMastro (1990), "Perceived Organizational Support and Employee Dil- igence, Commitment, and Innovation" Journal of Applied Psychology,75(1),51-59.
Ellis, A. & Knaus, W. (1977). Overcoming procrastination. New York: Institute for Rational Living.
Erdogan, B., Kraimer, M. L., & Liden, R. C. (2007). Work value congruence and intrinsic career success: The compensatory roles of leader–member exchange and perceived organizational support. Personnel Psychology, 57, 305–332.
Ferrari, J. R. (1994). Dysfunctional procrastination and its relationship with self-esteem, interpersonal dependency, and self-defeating behaviors. Personality and Individual Differences, 17, 673-679.
Ferrari, J. R. , Dovosko, E. , & Joseph, N. (2005). Procrastination in corporate settings: Sex, status, and geographic comparisons of arousal and avoidance types. Individual Differences Research, 3, 40–149.
Ferrari, J. R., Diaz–Morales, J. F., O'Callaghan, J, Diaz, K., & Argumendo, D. (2007). Frequent behavioral delay tendencies by adults: International prevalence rates of chronic procrastination. Journal of Cross–Cultural Psychology, 38, 458–464.
Ferrari, J. R., Johnson, J. L., & McCown, W. G. (1995). Procrastination and task avoidance: Theory, research, and treatment. New York: Plenum Press.
Garrett, R. K., & Danziger, J. N. (2008b). On cyberslacking: Workplace status and personal Internet use at work. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, 287–292.
George, J. M. (1992). Extrinsic and intrinsic origins of perceived social loafing in organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 35:191-202.
Gerards, Ruud, Andries de Grip, and Claudia Baudewijns. (2018). Do new ways of working increase work engagement? Personnel Review 47: 517–34.
Gustafsson, H., Sagar, S.S. and Stenling, A. (2017), Fear of failure, psychological stress, and burnout among adolescent athletes competing in high level sport. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 27: 2091-2102.
Gokul, A., Sridevi, G. & Srinivasan, P.T. (2012). The relation between Perceived Organizational Support, Work Engagement and Affective Commitment. AMET International Journal of Management.
Gupta, R., Hershey, D., & Gaur, J. (2012). Time perspective and procrastination in the workplace: An empirical investigation. Current Psychology, 31(2), 195–211. DOI: 10.1007/s12144-012-9136-3
Harriott, J., & Ferrari, J. R. (1996). Prevalence of procrastination among samples of adults. Psychological Reports, 78, 611-616.
Hill, C. A. (1987). Affiliation motivation: People who need people. . . but in different ways. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52,1008-1018.
Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at
conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44, 513-524.
Ingham, A,, Levinger, G., Graves, J., & Peckham, V. (1974). The Ringelmann effect: Studies of group size and group performance. Journal of Experimenral Social Psychology, 10, 371-384.
Kagan, M., Cakir, O., Ilhan, T., Kandemir, M. (2010). The explanation of the academic procrastination behavior of university students with perfectionism, obsessive- compulsive and five factor personality traits. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 2121-2125.
Karau, S. J., & Williams, K. D. (1993). Social loafing: A meta-analytic review and theoretical integration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 681–706.
Kasper, G. (2004). Tax procrastination: Survey finds 29% have yet to begin taxes. Retrieved March 14, 2006, from
Katrin B. Klingsieck (2013) Procrastination in Different Life-Domains: Is Procrastination Domain Specific? Current Psychology 32(2):175–185
Kidwell, R. E., & Bennett, N. (1993). Employee propensity to withhold effort: A conceptual model to intersect three avenues of research. Academy of Management Review, 18: 429-456
Kim, K. R. & Seo, E. H. (2015). The relationship between procrastination and academic performance: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 26-33. doi: 10.1016/j. paid.2015.02.038
Klassen, R. M., Krawchuk, L. L., Lynch, S. L., & Rajani, S. (2008a). Procrastination and motivation of undergraduates with learning disabilities: A mixed-methods inquiry. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 23, 137–147.
Knaus, W. J. (2000). Procrastination, blame, and change. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15, 153–166.
Latank, B., Williams, K., & Harkins, S. G. (1979). Many hands make light the work: The causes and consequences of social loafing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 822- 832.
Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Jaworski, R. A., & Bennett, N. (2004). Social loafing: A field investigation. Journal of Management, 30(2), 285–304.
Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Jaworski, R. A., & Bennett, N. (2004). Social loafing: A field investigation. Journal of Management, 30, 285–304.
Lim, V. K. G., & Teo, T. S. H. (2006). Cyberloafing and organizational justice: The moderating role of neutralization technique. In M. Anandarajan, T. S. H. Teo, & C. A. Simmers (Eds.), The internet and workplace transformation: Advances in management information systems (pp. 241–258). Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.
María Antonia Padilla Vargas (2017). Academic Procrastination: The Case of Mexican Researchers in Psychology. American Journal of Education and Learning, 2(2): 103- 120.
Metin, U.B., Taris, T.W., & Peeters, M.C.W. (2016). Measuring procrastination at work and its associated workplace aspects. Personality and Individual Differences, 101, 254– 263.
Milgram, N., (1991). Procrastination in Dulbecco. Encyclopedia of Human Biology; New York Academic.
Nguyen, B., Steel, P., & Ferrari, J. R. (2013). Procrastination's impact in the workplace and the workplace's impact on procrastination. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 21, 388–399.
O’Brien, W. K. (2002). Applying the transtheoretical model to academic procrastination. Unpublished doctoral sity of Houston.
Paulsen, R. (2015). Non-work at work: Resistance or what? Organization, 22, 351–367.
Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12(4), 531–544.
Preacher, K. J., Curran, P. J., & Bauer, D. J. (2006). Computational tools for probing interaction effects in multiple linear regression, multilevel modeling, and latent curve analysis. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 31, 437-448. doi:10.3102/10769986031004437
Sagar, S. S., Lavallee, D., & Spray, C. M. (2009). Coping with the effects of fear of failure: A preliminary investigation of young elite athletes. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 3, 1-27
Schouwenburg, H. C. (2004). Academic procrastination: Theoretical notions, measurement, and research. In H. C. Schouwenburg, C. H. Lay, T. A. Pychyl, & J. R.Ferrari (Eds.), Counseling the procrastinator in academic settings (pp. 3-17). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Schouwenburg, H. C., & Lay, C. H. (1995). Trait procrastination and the Big Five factors of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 18, 481-490.
Schraw, G., Wadkins, T., & Olafson, L. (2007). Doing the things we do: a grounded theory of academic procrastination. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 12–25.
Senécal, C., Lavoie, K., & Koestner, R. (1997). Trait and situational factors in procrastination: An interactional model. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12, 889-903.
Sharma, S. K. and J. N. D. Gupta. (2003/2004). ‘‘Improving Workers’ Productivity and Reducing Internet Abuse.’’ The Journal of Computer Information Systems 44: 74-78.
Silver, M. (1974). Procrastination. Center point, 1, 49-54.
Sirois, F. M. (2014). Procrastination and Stress: Exploring the Role of Self-compassion. Self and Identity, 13(2), 128-145.
Solomon, L. J., & Rothblum, E. D. (1984). Academic procrastination: Frequency and cognitive behavioral correlates. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31, 503-509.
Steel, P. (2007). The nature of procrastination: A meta quintessential self-regulatory failure, doi:10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.65
Steel, P. (2010). Arousal, avoidant and decisional procrastinators: Do they exist? Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 926–934
Steel, P., Brothen, T., & Wambach, C. (2001). Procrastination and personality, performance, and mood. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 95-106
Steiner, I. D. (1972). Group process and productivity. New York: Academic Press.
Tuckman, B. W. (1991). The development and concurrent validity of the Procrastination Scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 51, 473-480.
U. Baran Metin, Maria C. W. Peeters & Toon W. Taris (2018) Correlates of procrastination and performance at work: The role of having “good fit”, Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46:3, 228-244, DOI:10.1080/10852352.2018.1470187
Van Eerde, W. (2000). Procrastination: self-regulation in initiating aversive goals. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 49, 372–389.
Wan, H. C., Downey, L. A., & Stough, C. (2014). Understanding non-work presenteeism: Relationships between emotional intelligence, boredom, procrastination and job stress. Personality and Individual Differences, 65, 86–90.
Wolters, C. A. (2003). Understanding procrastination from a self-regulated learning perspective. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 179-187.
電子全文 Fulltext
論文使用權限 Thesis access permission:校內校外完全公開 unrestricted
開放時間 Available:
校內 Campus:開放下載的時間 available 2022-02-15
校外 Off-campus:開放下載的時間 available 2022-02-15

QR Code