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姓名 趙育隆(Yu-Long Chao) 電子郵件信箱 E-mail 資料不公開
畢業系所 公共事務管理研究所(Public Affairs Management)
畢業學位 博士(Ph.D.) 畢業時期 97學年第2學期
論文名稱(中) 以對計畫行為理論之配適度為效標之自我報告與他人報告環境行為效度比較
論文名稱(英) A Comparison of the Validities of Self-reported and Other-reported Environmental Behaviors with Fitness for the Theory of Planned Behavior as a Criterion
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    摘要(中) 在過去的二十年裡有許多環境行為模式被提出來預測或解釋環境行為,由於現實上的限制,這些模式大多是以自我報告的量數為基礎而被測試的。如果採用觀察到的環境行為量數,這些模式的表現會是如何?採用自我報告的環境行為(self-reported environmental behavior, SB)量數的模式和採用他人報告的環境行為(other-reported environmental behavior, OB)量數的同一模式,兩者之間在模式測試的結果上有何差異?而這些差異又意味著什麼?
    本研究運用結構方程模式(structural equation modeling, SEM),分別以SB量數與OB量數來測試一個主要的模式:Ajzen(1985)的計畫行為理論(theory of planned behavior, TPB),並透過問卷與參與式觀察,亦即訓練某一大學宿舍的住宿學生來觀察共172位室友的五種環境行為,來蒐集資料。其中觀察者對室友環境行為所做的他人報告是基於他們的觀察、與室友一起生活的經驗、以及對室友的瞭解而做出的。
    研究結果顯示行為意圖(behavioral intention, BI)與SB之間、SB與OB之間存在顯著的行為頻率落差,以七點量表尺度而言,SB與OB行為頻率的差距大約是1.25點。BI-SB的相關性(.87)較BI-OB的相關性(.31)大許多,意味著BI對SB的預測優於對OB的預測。研究發現相較於BI,研究對象所報告的SB有較保守的傾向,而觀察者在提供OB時則更為保守。BI可能是SB與OB兩者的共同因(common cause),或SB可能干擾(intervene)著BI與OB之間的關係。在分別用SB與OB測試TPB模式的結果方面有幾個重要的差異,個人對行為的偏好在預測其SB上扮演著重要角色,當採用SB時,模式因為BI與SB之間的強力連結而有相當高的解釋變異量(.814),似乎也有較佳的模式配適度。反觀當使用OB時,因為BI與OB之間明顯的不一致,使模式預測行為的能力大幅降低。最後,社會讚許(social desirability)似乎並不是造成SB-OB落差的原因。
    摘要(英) Many environmental behavior models have been proposed to predict or explain environmental behavior in the past two decades. Due to limitations in practice, these models were mostly tested on a basis of self-reported measures of environmental behavior. How would these models perform if an observed measure of environmental behavior was used? What are the differences between the results of testing a model with a self-reported environmental behavior (SB) measure and the same model with an other-reported environmental behavior (OB) measure? And, what do these differences imply?
    A major model, Ajzen’s (1985) theory of planned behavior (TPB), was tested with SB and OB measures respectively with structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis. Data were collected through questionnaires and participant observation in which students living in dormitories in a university were trained to observe their 172 roommates’ five environmental behaviors. The other-reports of these roommates’ environmental behavior made by the observers were based on their observation as well as experiences in living with and understanding of their roommates.
    Results showed that there existed significant frequency gaps between behavioral intention (BI) and SB and between SB and OB. The difference between SB and OB frequency was about 1.25 points on a 7-point scale. The BI-SB correlation (.87) was much larger than BI-OB correlation (.31) implying that SB was better predicted than OB was by BI. It was found that the subjects’ SB tended to be conservative compared with BI and that OB was provided even more conservatively by the observers. BI could be the common cause of both SB and OB or SB could intervene in the relationship between BI and OB. A few significant differences were found in the results of testing the TPB model with SB and OB. The preference for the behavior might have played an essential role in predicting one’s SB. The model had a very large proportion of variance explained (.814) because of the strong connection between BI and SB. It also seemed to have a better model fit when SB was used while the model’s capability in predicting behavior was greatly reduced due to the large disparity between BI and OB when OB was used. Finally, it seemed that social desirability was a not cause of the SB-OB gap.
    關鍵字(中)
  • 自我報告
  • 環境行為
  • 參與式觀察
  • 結構方程模式
  • 他人報告
  • 關鍵字(英)
  • participant observation
  • other-reports
  • self-reports
  • environmental behavior
  • structural equation modeling (SEM)
  • 論文目次 Chapter 1. Introduction …………………………………………………………………... 1
    1.1 Background and motivation ..……………………………………………………. 1
    1.2 Research purpose .………………………………………………………………... 2
    1.3 Research design ………………………………………………………………….. 2
    1.4 Research questions ………………………………………………………………. 3
    1.5 Definitions of terms ..…………………………………………………………….. 3
    1.6 Research hypotheses ……………………………………………………………... 4
    1.7 Research significance …………………………………………………………..... 5
    Chapter 2. Literature Review ……………………………………………………………. 6
    2.1 The terminology of environmental behavior ……………………………………..
    6
    2.2 The measurement of environmental behavior …………………………………… 9
    2.3 The problems of self-reported measures ……………………………………….... 13
    2.4 Unobtrusive measures of environmental behavior ……………………………..... 15
    2.5 Models of environmental behaviors ……………………………………………... 20
    Chapter 3. Method ……………………………………………………………………….. 33
    3.1 Overview ………………………………………………………………………… 33
    3.2 Participants ………………………………………………………………… 33
    3.3 Data collection …………………………………………………………………… 34
    3.3.1. Participant observation of environmental behavior ……………………….. 34
    3.3.2. Questionnaire ……………………………………………………………… 39
    3.4 Statistical analysis ……………………………………………………………….. 46
    3.4.1. Structural equation model (SEM) …………………………………………. 46
    3.4.2. Test of model acceptability ……………………………………………….. 50
    3.4.3 Differences between models ………………………………………………. 51
    3.4.4 Comparison between and relationships among different measures ……….. 52
    Chapter 4. Results and Discussions……………………………………………………… 54
    4.1 Selection and description of the subjects ………………………………………... 54
    4.2 Descriptive statistics and reliability ……………………………………………... 54
    4.3 Difference of means analyses …………………………………………………..... 60
    4.4 Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis …………………………………… 64
    4.4.1 Testing the TPB model with different environmental behavior measures … 65
    4.4.2 Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) ……………………………………….. 69
    4.4.3 The TPB model including a social desirability variable …………………... 76
    4.5 Correlation analysis ……………………………………………………………… 76
    4.5.1 Pearson’s correlations ……………………………………………………… 76
    4.5.2 Partial correlations …………………………………………………………. 84
    Chapter 5. Conclusions and Suggestions ………………………………………………... 88
    5.1 Conclusions …………………………………………………………………….... 88
    5.1.1 Differences and relationships among environmental behavior measures …. 88
    5.1.2 Influences of different environmental behavior measures on the TPB model ………………………………………………………………………. 90
    5.1.3 The effects of social desirability …………………………………………… 91
    5.2 Research limitations …………………………………………………………....... 92
    5.3 Suggestions ……………………………………………………………………...
    93
    References ………………………………………………………………………………. 95
    Appendix A: Self-report Questionnaire …………………………………………………. 113
    Appendix B: Other-report Questionnaire ………………….……………………………. 118
    Appendix C: Cross-assessment Questionnaire …………………………………………. 121
    Appendix D: Observation Recording Form ……………………………………………... 123
    Appendix E: ICC and Kendall’s W for Each Room …………………………………….. 131
    Appendix F: English-Chinese Glossary of the Five Environmental Behaviors …………. 133
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