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博碩士論文 etd-0612121-152838 詳細資訊
Title page for etd-0612121-152838
論文名稱
Title
建構基於專家迴路的人工指導機器學習
Human-guided Machine Learning by Enabling Expert-in-the-Loop
系所名稱
Department
畢業學年期
Year, semester
語文別
Language
學位類別
Degree
頁數
Number of pages
48
研究生
Author
指導教授
Advisor
召集委員
Convenor
口試委員
Advisory Committee
口試日期
Date of Exam
2021-07-02
繳交日期
Date of Submission
2021-07-12
關鍵字
Keywords
人機迴路機器學習、規則學習、捷徑學習、混合效應模型、可解釋性、使用者信任
Human-in-the-Loop Machine Learning, Rule Learning, Shortcut Learning, Mixed-effects Model, Interpretability, User Trust
統計
Statistics
本論文已被瀏覽 501 次,被下載 111
The thesis/dissertation has been browsed 501 times, has been downloaded 111 times.
中文摘要
隨著科技的發展,機器學習已經被廣泛運用在各個領域當中,但是大多時候人們只把重點放在模型的正確率上。雖然開發出許多強大的演算法,但是這些模型的架構也變得愈來愈複雜,使得人類無法理解模型的邏輯及判斷因素。因此我們無法得知模型是否從資料中學習對觀測現象合理的解釋與關係,所以在特定領域中(例如:醫療、工業)這樣的模型沒有可解釋性讓人信任,甚至因此無法被運用。此外,模型準確度不光受到模型複雜程度的影響,還會受到訓練資料影響,其中最常見的問題就是缺少資料量或資料特徵與預測目標間並沒有相關性的問題。

在本研究中,我們提出新的 human-in-the-loop machine learning 架構, 利用混合效應模型樹(Generalized Linear Mixed-Effects Model Tree)這種可解釋性模型讓專家可以透過模型產生的規則清楚了解模型是如何做預測,並且根據專家自身的知識及經驗給予模型更合適的要預測值,其目的是希望透過人的介入來改善機器學習模型潛在的捷徑學習問題,其次藉由規則的呈現也能減少專家標註資料的時間成本。實驗結果顯示,該方法可以從專家回饋的資料中學習新的符合實務應用場景的資料規則,並且能夠找到可解釋並更適合用來預測目標變數的特徵,以提升模型整體表現。此外標註者也可以從模型規則中找出以往沒有思 考過的判斷邏輯、消除思考的偏見,進而使得模型及人類雙方在決策判斷上都可以更加完備。
Abstract
Along with the development of technology, machine learning has been widely used in various fields, but most of the time people only focus on the accuracy of the model. Although many powerful algorithms have been developed, the architecture of these models has become more and more complex, which makes it impossible for humans to understand predictive factors in models. Therefore, it is impossible to know whether the models accurately learn the appropriate relationship, so in some certain fields, (e.g., medical, industrial), such models are not explanatory enough to be trusted or even be used. In addition, the accuracy of the model is not only affected by model complexity, but also by the training data. The most common problem is the lack of data, or there is no correlation between the target variable and the input features.

In this study, we propose a novel human-in-the-loop machine learning architecture, which uses an interpretable algorithm, the Generalized Linear Mixed-Effects Model Tree, so that experts can clearly understand how the model makes predictions through the rules generated by the model, and give more appropriate predicted values to the model according to their knowledge and experience. The purpose of our method is to improve the potential shortcut learning problems of machine learning models through human intervention. Secondly, to reduce the time cost of annotating data by experts through the representation of rules. Experimental results show that the proposed method can learn new data rules in line with practical application scenarios from the feedback of experts, and can find the features that can be interpreted and are more suitable for predicting target variables, so as to improve the overall performance of the model. In addition, the annotator can also find out the judgment logic that has not been considered before and eliminates the thinking bias from the model rules, so that both the model and human beings can be more complete in decision-making and judgment.
目次 Table of Contents
論文審定書 i
摘要 ii
Abstract iv
List of Figures vii
List of Table viii
1. Introduction 1
2. Background and Related Work 2
2.2 Mixed Effects Model 2
2.2 Generalized Linear Mixed-Effects Model Tree 6
2.3 Shortcut Learning 8
2.4 Data Annotation and Active Learning 10
2.5 Human-in-the-loop Machine Learning (HitL–ML) 14
3. Methodology 17
3.1 Mixed Effects Model for Longitudinal Data 17
3.2 Rules Assistance for Data Annotation 19
3.3 Krippendorff's Alpha Coefficient 20
3.4 Retraining Model with Experts' Feedback 21
4. Experimental Result and Discussion 22
4.1 Data Description 22
4.2 Experiments 26
5. Discussion 31
6. Conclusion 31
7. References 32
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