Responsive image
博碩士論文 etd-0710122-173012 詳細資訊
Title page for etd-0710122-173012
The Study of Team Diversity and Innovation Behavior: Exploring the Moderating Effects of Transformational Leadership, Perceived Organizational Support, and Psychological Collectivism
Year, semester
Number of pages
Advisory Committee
黃北豪, 衛芷言, 鄭博文
Huang,Pei-How; Wei,Chih-Yen; Jeng,Po-Wen
Date of Exam
Date of Submission
team diversity, knowledge sharing, innovation behavior, transformational leadership, perceived organizational support, psychological collectivism
本論文已被瀏覽 175 次,被下載 0
The thesis/dissertation has been browsed 175 times, has been downloaded 0 times.
In today's environment of rapid information dissemination and continuous technological development, enterprises need to continuously improve through innovation to maintain competitiveness, and this is also regarded as the primary goal that enterprises need to achieve. In order to let enterprises, have the ability to continuously innovate, it is necessary to cultivate talents who are good at innovation, and through the way of forming a diverse team, and then through knowledge sharing and brainstorming, to enhance the possibility of innovation. Additionally, enterprises can achieve this goal by forming diverse teams, choosing transformational leaders, and providing employees with organizational support for innovative behaviors. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between diverse teams and innovative behavior, as well as the variables that may have an impact. First, ten middle and high-level executives in Taiwan were interviewed by semi-structured interview method, and according to the results of the interview and follow-up questionnaire analysis, it was found that: 1. Team diversity has a positive and significant impact on knowledge sharing; 2. Knowledge sharing has a positive and significant impact on innovation behavior; 3. Team diversity has a positive impact on innovation behavior; 4. Knowledge sharing has an intermediary effect to team diversity and innovation behavior.; 5. The stronger the transformational leadership traits, the stronger the relationship between team diversity and knowledge sharing; 6. Perceived organization support positively interfere with the relationship between knowledge sharing and innovation behavior; 7. Psychological collectivism will negatively interfere with the relationship between knowledge sharing and innovation behavior. Finally, this study provides suggestions for enterprises to achieve their goals based on the research results. From team composition, selecting leaders and providing organizational support, and paying attention to the degree of psychological collectivism of team members, and then make strategies and plan to improve innovative behavior.
目次 Table of Contents
論文審定書 i
中文摘要 ii
英文摘要 iii
圖次 vi
表次 vii
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 1
第二章 文獻探討 3
第一節 團隊多元化 3
第二節 知識分享 4
第三節 創新行為 4
第四節 轉換型領導 5
第五節 知覺組織支持 6
第六節 心理集體主義 7
第七節 各構面關係探討 7
第三章 研究方法 13
第一節 研究架構與假設 13
第二節 變數衡量與操作型定義 15
第三節 量化研究樣本與研究流程 15
第四節 量化樣本基本描述 16
第四章 研究結果 18
第一節 變量基本描述 18
第二節 相關分析(相關矩陣) 21
第三節 信度分析 22
第四節 因素分析 22
第五節 結構方程模型 25
第六節 質性訪談摘要 35
第五章 結論與建議 39
參考文獻 41
附錄一 50
附錄二 53
附錄三 59
附錄四 64
附錄五 72
附錄六 79
附錄七 81
附錄八 83
附錄九 85
附錄十 88
附錄十一 90
參考文獻 References
Alnesr, B., & Ramzani, S. (2019). The impact of transformational leadership on innovation through the mediating role of knowledge sharing in public and private universities of Syria. Journal of Business and Management, 21(2), 76-82.
Anderson, N. R., & West, M. A. (1998). Measuring climate for work group innovation: development and validation of the team climate inventory. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 19(3), 235-258.
Anderson, N., Potočnik, K., & Zhou, J. (2014). Innovation and creativity in organizations: A state-of-the-science review, prospective commentary, and guiding framework. Journal of management, 40(5), 1297-1333.
Ansari, S., Roodbari, A., Aboosaeidi, L.R., and Nassaji, H. (2016). Intellectual Capital as a Facilitator of Knowledge Infrastructure Creating and Sharing. Journal of International Economics, Trade, and Management, 4(6), 100-107.
Armisen, A., & Majchrzak, A. (2015). Tapping the innovative business potential of innovation contests. Business Horizons, 58(4), 389-399.Avolio, B., Walumbwa, F., & Weber, T. J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Management Department Faculty Publications, 37.
Axtell, C. M., Holman, D. J., Unsworth, K. L., Wall, T. D., Waterson, P. E., & Harrington, E. (2000). Shopfloor innovation: Facilitating the suggestion and implementation of ideas. Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, 73(3), 265-285.
Baer, M. (2012). Putting creativity to work: The implementation of creative ideas in organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 55(5), 1102-1119.
Baker, W.E., Grinstein, A., and Harmancioglu, N. (2016). Whose innovation performance benefits more from external networks: Entrepreneurial or conservative firms? The Journal of Product Innovation Management, 33(1), 104-120.
Bandura, A. (2012). On the functional properties of perceived self-efficacy revisited. Journal of management, 38(1), 9-44.
Barsade, S. G. (2002). The ripple effect: Emotional contagion and its influence on group behavior. Administrative science quarterly, 47(4), 644-675.
Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1990). Developing transformational leadership: 1992 and beyond. Journal of European industrial training.
Bergendahl, M., and Magnusson, M. (2015). Creating ideas for innovation: Effects of organizational distance on knowledge creation processes. Creativity and Innovation Management, 24(1), 87-101.
Bligh, M. C. (2017). Leadership and trust. In Leadership today (pp. 21-42). Springer, Cham.
Bojica, A. M., & Fuentes, M. D. M. F. (2012). Knowledge acquisition and corporate entrepreneurship: Insights from Spanish SMEs in the ICT sector. Journal of World Business, 47(3), 397-408.
Breschi, S., Lissoni, F., & Malerba, F. (2003). Knowledge-relatedness in firm technological diversification. Research policy, 32(1), 69-87.
Brewer, M. B., & Chen, Y. R. (2007). Where (who) are collectives in collectivism? Toward conceptual clarification of individualism and collectivism. Psychological review, 114(1), 133.
Brislin, R. W. (1986). The wording and translation of research instruments.
Cace, S., Arpinte, D., Cace, C., Cojocaru, S. (2011). The social economy. An integrating approach. Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences, 33E, 49-66.
Carnabuci, G., & Diószegi, B. (2015). Social networks, cognitive style, and innovative performance: A contingency perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 58(3), 881-905.
Charterina, J., Landeta, J., & Basterretxea, I. (2017). Mediation effects of trust and contracts on knowledge-sharing and product innovation: Evidence from the European machine tool industry. European Journal of Innovation Management.
Cheung, S. Y., Gong, Y., Wang, M., Zhou, L., & Shi, J. (2016). When and how does functional diversity influence team innovation? The mediating role of knowledge sharing and the moderation role of affect-based trust in a team. Human relations, 69(7), 1507-1531.
Choi, T. M., Chiu, C. H., & Chan, H. K. (2016). Risk management of logistics systems. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 90, 1-6.
Cohen, W. M., & Levinthal, D. A. (1990). Absorptive capacity: A new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative science quarterly, 128-152.
Cojocaru, S., Bragaru, C., and Ciuchi, O.M. (2012). The role of language in constructing social realities. The Appreciative Inquiry and the reconstruction of organizational ideology. Revista de Cercetare si Interventie Sociala, 36, 31-43.
Den Hartog, D. N. (2015). Ethical leadership. Annu. Rev. Organ. Psychol. Organ. Behav., 2(1), 409-434.Dierdorff, E. C., Bell, S. T., & Belohlav, J. A. (2011). The power of “we”: Effects of psychological collectivism on team performance over time. Journal of applied psychology, 96(2), 247.
Dinu, V., Grosu, R.M., and Saseanu, A.S. (2015). Romanian immigrant entrepreneurship:Utopia or reality? An overview of entrepreneurial manifestations of Romanian immigrants in Andalusia, Spain. Transformations in Business and Economics, 14(1), 48-64.
Donate, M. J., & Guadamillas, F. (2011). Organizational factors to support knowledge management and innovation. Journal of knowledge management.
Earley, P. C. (1989). Social loafing and collectivism: A comparison of the United States and the People's Republic of China. Administrative science quarterly, 565-581.
Earley, P. C. (1993). East meets West meets Mideast: Further explorations of collectivistic and individualistic work groups. Academy of management journal, 36(2), 319-348.
Earley, P. C. (1994). Self or group? Cultural effects of training on self-efficacy and performance. Administrative science quarterly, 89-117.
Earley, P. C., & Gibson, C. B. (1998). Taking stock in our progress on individualism-collectivism: 100 years of solidarity and community. Journal of management, 24(3), 265-304.
Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied psychology, 71(3), 500.
Farmer, S.M., Van Dyne, L., and Kamdar, D. (2015). The contextualized self:How team member exchange leads to coworker identification and helping OCB. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(2), 583.
Forgas, J. P. (1998). On feeling good and getting your way: mood effects on negotiator cognition and bargaining strategies. Journal of personality and social psychology, 74(3), 565.
Forgas, J. P., & George, J. M. (2001). Affective influences on judgments and behavior in organizations: An information processing perspective. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 86(1), 3-34.
Fransen, K., Decroos, S., Vanbeselaere, N., VandeBroek, G., De Cuyper, B., Vanroy, J., and Boen, F. (2015). Is team confidence the key to success? The reciprocal relation between collective efficacy, team outcome confidence, and perceptions of team performance during soccer games. Journal of Sports Sciences, 33(3), 219-231.
García-Morales, V. J., Jiménez-Barrionuevo, M. M., & Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, L. (2012). Transformational leadership influence on organizational performance through organizational learning and innovation. Journal of business research, 65(7), 1040-1050.
Garcia-Vega, M. (2006). Does technological diversification promote innovation?: An empirical analysis for European firms. Research policy, 35(2), 230-246.
George, J. M., & Brief, A. P. (1992). Feeling good-doing good: A conceptual analysis of the mood at work-organizational spontaneity relationship. Psychological bulletin, 112(2), 310.
Goncalo, J. A., & Staw, B. M. (2006). Individualism–collectivism and group creativity. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 100(1), 96-109.
Hair, A., & Anderson, R. (1998). Tatham, and Black, 1998, Multivariate Data Analysis. New Jersey, USA.
Henson, R. K. (2001). Teacher self-efficacy: Substantive implications and measurement dilemmas.
Herrmann, D., & Felfe, J. (2013). Moderators of the relationship between leadership style and employee creativity: The role of task novelty and personal initiative. Creativity Research Journal, 25(2), 172-181.
Homan, A. C., Buengeler, C., Eckhoff, R. A., van Ginkel, W. P., and Voelpel, S, C, (2015). the interplay of diversity training and diversity beliefs on team creativity in nationality diverse teams. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(5), 1456-1467.
Horwitz, S. K., & Horwitz, I. B. (2007). The effects of team diversity on team outcomes: A meta-analytic review of team demography. Journal of management, 33(6), 987-1015.
Hsu, J.S.C., Li, Y., and Sun, H. (2017). Exploring the interaction between vertical and shared leadership in information systems development projects. International Journal of Project Management, 35(8), 1557-1572.
Hülsheger, U. R., Anderson, N., & Salgado, J. F. (2009). Team-level predictors of innovation at work: a comprehensive meta-analysis spanning three decades of research. Journal of Applied psychology, 94(5), 1128.
Jabbour, C. J. C., Santos, F. C. A., & Nagano, M. S. (2010). Contributions of HRM throughout the stages of environmental management: methodological triangulation applied to companies in Brazil. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(7), 1049-1089.
Jackson, C. L., Colquitt, J. A., Wesson, M. J., & Zapata-Phelan, C. P. (2006). Psychological collectivism: A measurement validation and linkage to group member performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(4), 884.
Janssen, O. (2001). Fairness perceptions as a moderator in the curvilinear relationships between job demands, and job performance and job satisfaction. Academy of management journal, 44(5), 1039-1050.
Jia, X., Chen, J., Mei, L., & Wu, Q. (2018). How leadership matters in organizational innovation: a perspective of openness. Management Decision.
Jung, D. D., Wu, A., & Chow, C. W. (2008). Towards understanding the direct and indirect effects of CEOs' transformational leadership on firm innovation. The leadership quarterly, 19(5), 582-594.
Kanter, R. M. (1988). Three tiers for innovation research. Communication Research, 15(5), 509-523.
Khalili, A. (2016). Linking transformational leadership, creativity, innovation, and innovation-supportive climate. Management Decision, 54(9), 2277-2293.
Laursen, B. S., Sørensen, H. P., Mortensen, K. K., & Sperling-Petersen, H. U. (2005). Initiation of protein synthesis in bacteria. Microbiology and molecular biology reviews, 69(1), 101-123.
Lawler, E. J. (2001). An affect theory of social exchange. American journal of sociology, 107(2), 321-352.
Le, P. B., & Lei, H. (2017). How transformational leadership supports knowledge sharing: evidence from Chinese manufacturing and service firms. Chinese Management Studies.
Le, P. B., & Lei, H. (2019). Determinants of innovation capability: the roles of transformational leadership, knowledge sharing and perceived organizational support. Journal of knowledge management.
Lee, C.W., and Hidayat, N. (2018). The Influence of Knowledge Sharing to the Service Innovation Performance of Restaurant Business in North Borneo. Indonesia. Journal of Metris, 19, 1-10.
Li, J., Meyer, B., Shemla, M., and Wegge, J. (2018). From being diverse to becoming diverse: a dynamic team diversity theory. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 39, 956-970.
Lin, H. F. (2007). Knowledge sharing and firm innovation capability: an empirical study. International Journal of manpower.
Louis, K.S., and Murphy, J. (2017). Trust, caring and organizational learning:the leader’s role. Journal of Educational Administration, 55(1), 103-126.
Love, M. S., & Dustin, S. L. (2014). An investigation of coworker relationships and psychological collectivism on employee propensity to take charge. The international journal of human resource management, 25(9), 1208-1226.
Lundvall, B. A. (1992). National systems of innovation: towards a theory of innovation and interactive learning.
MacNeil, C. M. (2004). Exploring the supervisor role as a facilitator of knowledge sharing in teams. Journal of European Industrial Training, 28(1), 93-102.
Mageswari, S.D.U., Sivasubramanian, C., and Dath, T.N.S. (2015). Knowledge management enablers, processes and innovation in small manufacturing firms:A structural equation modeling approach. IUP Journal of Knowledge Management, 13(1), 33-58.
Mahmoud, M. A., Tabor, C. E., El-Sayed, M. A., Ding, Y., & Wang, Z. L. (2008). A new catalytically active colloidal platinum nanocatalyst: the multiarmed nanostar single crystal. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 130(14), 4590-4591.
Martinez, M. G. (2015). Solver engagement in knowledge sharing in crowd sourcing communities:Exploring the link to creativity. Research Policy, 44(8), 1419-1430.
Mesmer-Magnus, J. R., & DeChurch, L. A. (2009). Information sharing and team performance: a meta-analysis. Journal of applied psychology, 94(2), 535.
Michaelis, B., Stegmaier, R., & Sonntag, K. (2010). Shedding light on followers' innovation implementation behavior: The role of transformational leadership, commitment to change, and climate for initiative. Journal of Managerial Psychology.
Mittal, S., & Dhar, R. L. (2015). Transformational leadership and employee creativity: mediating role of creative self-efficacy and moderating role of knowledge sharing. Management Decision.
Mortazavi, S., Pedhiwala, N., Shafiro, M., & Hammer, L. (2009). Work–family conflict related to culture and gender. Community, Work & Family, 12(2), 251-273.
Mumford, M. D., Scott, G. M., Gaddis, B., & Strange, J. M. (2002). Leading creative people: Orchestrating expertise and relationships. The leadership quarterly, 13(6), 705-750.
Ng, T. W. H. and Lucianetti, L. (2016). Within-individual increases in innovative behavior and creative, persuasion, and change self-efficacy over time: a social-cognitive theory perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(1), 14-34.
Ng, T. W., & Lucianetti, L. (2016). Goal striving, idiosyncratic deals, and job behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(1), 41-60.
Nunnally, J. C. (1978). An overview of psychological measurement. Clinical diagnosis of mental disorders, 97-146.
Obstfeld, D. (2005). Social networks, the tertius iungens orientation, and involvement in innovation. Administrative science quarterly, 50(1), 100-130.
Olaru, M., Dinu, V., Keppler, T., Mocan, B., and Mateiu, A. (2015). Study on the open innovation practices in Romanian SMEs. Amfiteatru Economic, 17(9), 1129-1141.
Omri, W. (2015). Innovative behavior and venture performance of SMEs. European Journal of Innovation Management, 18(2), 195-217.
Østergaard, C. R., Timmermans, B., and Kristinsson, K. (2011). Does a different view create something new? The effect of employee diversity on innovation. Research policy, 40(3), 500-509.
Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological bulletin, 128(1), 3.
Pitcher, P., & Smith, A. D. (2001). Top management team heterogeneity: Personality, power, and proxies. Organization Science, 12(1), 1-18.
Prasad, B., & Junni, P. (2016). CEO transformational and transactional leadership and organizational innovation: The moderating role of environmental dynamism. Management Decision.
Quintana-García, C., & Benavides-Velasco, C. A. (2008). Innovative competence, exploration and exploitation: The influence of technological diversification. Research policy, 37(3), 492-507.
Raab, K. J., Ambos, B., & Tallman, S. (2014). Strong or invisible hands?–Managerial involvement in the knowledge sharing process of globally dispersed knowledge groups. Journal of World Business, 49(1), 32-41.
Rafferty, A. E., & Griffin, M. A. (2004). Dimensions of transformational leadership: Conceptual and empirical extensions. The leadership quarterly, 15(3), 329-354.
Rhoades, L., & Eisenberger, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: a review of the literature. Journal of applied psychology, 87(4), 698.
Ritala, P., Husted, K., Olander, H., & Michailova, S. (2018). External knowledge sharing and radical innovation: the downsides of uncontrolled openness. Journal of Knowledge Management.
Robinson, S., and Stubberud, H.A. (2015). A comparison of methods of creativity in small and large European businesses. International Journal of Entrepreneurship, 19, 140-151.
Sattayaraksa, T., & Boon-itt, S. (2017). The roles of CEO transformational leadership and organizational factors on product innovation performance. European Journal of Innovation Management.
Schermuly, C.C., and Meyer, B. (2015). Good relationships at work: The effects of Leader-Member Exchange and Team-Member Exchange on psychological empowerment, emotional exhaustion, and depression. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(5), 673-691.
Scott, S. G., & Bruce, R. A. (1994). Determinants of innovative behavior: A path model of individual innovation in the workplace. Academy of management journal, 37(3), 580-607.
Sia, S. K., & Appu, A. V. (2015). Work autonomy and workplace creativity: Moderating role of task complexity. Global Business Review, 16(5), 772-784.
Smith, L. M., Denzin, N., & Lincoln, Y. (1994). Biographical method. The SAGE.
Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of management Journal, 38(5), 1442-1465.
Suifan, T. S., Abdallah, A. B., & Al Janini, M. (2018). The impact of transformational leadership on employees’ creativity: The mediating role of perceived organizational support. Management Research Review.
Sullivan, D., Landau, M. J., Kay, A. C., & Rothschild, Z. K. (2012). Collectivism and the meaning of suffering. Journal of personality and social psychology, 103(6), 1023.
Sun, Y., Wang, N., Yin, C., and Zhang, J.X. (2015). Understanding the relationships between motivators and eff ort in crowd sourcing marketplaces: A nonlinear analysis. International Journal of Information Management, 35(3), 267-276.
Suzuki, J., & Kodama, F. (2004). Technological diversity of persistent innovators in Japan: Two case studies of large Japanese firms. Research Policy, 33(3), 531-549.
Tortoriello, M., & Krackhardt, D. (2010). Activating cross-boundary knowledge: The role of Simmelian ties in the generation of innovations. Academy of management journal, 53(1), 167-181.
Uduma, I.A., Wali, A. F., Wright, L. T., and Nasir, T. (2015). A quantitative study on the influence of breadth of open innovation on SMEs product-service performance: The moderating effect of type of innovation. Cogent Business and Management, 2, 112-125.
Van de Ven, A. H. (1986). Central problems in the management of innovation. Management science, 32(5), 590-607.
Van Den Hooff, B., & De Ridder, J. A. (2004). Knowledge sharing in context: the influence of organizational commitment, communication climate and CMC use on knowledge sharing. Journal of knowledge management.
Van der Vegt, G. S., & Janssen, O. (2003). Joint impact of interdependence and group diversity on innovation. Journal of management, 29(5), 729-751.
Van Dijk, H., Van Engen, M. L., & Van Knippenberg, D. (2012). Defying conventional wisdom: A meta-analytical examination of the differences between demographic and job-related diversity relationships with performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 119(1), 38-53.
Vera, D., & Crossan, M. (2004). Strategic leadership and organizational learning. Academy of management review, 29(2), 222-240.
Walumbwa, F. O., Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L., Wernsing, T. S., & Peterson, S. J. (2008). Authentic leadership: Development and validation of a theory-based measure. Journal of management, 34(1), 89-126.
Wang, C. Y. P., Jaw, B. S., & Huang, C. Y. (2008). Towards a cross-cultural framework of strategic international human resource control: the case of Taiwanese high-tech subsidiaries in the USA. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(7), 1253-1277.
Wang, G., Oh, I. S., Courtright, S. H., & Colbert, A. E. (2011). Transformational leadership and performance across criteria and levels: A meta-analytic review of 25 years of research. Group & organization management, 36(2), 223-270.
Wang, K.Y., Hermens, A., Huang, K., and Chelliah, J. (2015). Entrepreneurial orientation and organizational learning on SMEs’ innovation. International Journal of Organizational Innovation, 7(4), 71-81.
Wenger, E. C., & Snyder, W. M. (2000). Communities of practice: The organizational frontier. Harvard business review, 78(1), 139-146.
West, M. A. (2002). Sparkling fountains or stagnant ponds: An integrative model of creativity and innovation implementation in work groups. Applied psychology, 51(3), 355-387.
Wheeler, L., Reis, H. T., & Bond, M. H. (1989). Collectivism-individualism in everyday social life: The middle kingdom and the melting pot. Journal of personality and Social Psychology, 57(1), 79.
Wong, S. S., & Boh, W. F. (2014). The contingent effects of social network sparseness and centrality on managerial innovativeness. Journal of Management Studies, 51(7), 1180-1203.
Woodman, R. W., Sawyer, J. E., & Griffin, R. W. (1993). Toward a theory of organizational creativity. Academy of management review, 18(2), 293-321.
Yukl, G., Mahsud, R., Hassan, S., & Prussia, G. E. (2013). An improved measure of ethical leadership. Journal of leadership & organizational studies, 20(1), 38-48.
Zahra, S. A., & George, G. (2002). Absorptive capacity: A review, reconceptualization, and extension. Academy of management review, 27(2), 185-203.
Zheng, X., Yin, H., Liu, Y., & Ke, Z. (2016). Effects of leadership practices on professional learning communities: The mediating role of trust in colleagues. Asia Pacific Education Review, 17(3), 521-532.
Zhou, G., & Zhang, Z. (2014). A study of the first year international students at a Canadian university: Challenges and experiences with social integration. Comparative and International Education, 43(2).
Zhou, J., & George, J. M. (2001). When job dissatisfaction leads to creativity: Encouraging the expression of voice. Academy of Management journal, 44(4), 682-696.
Zhou, W., Zhang, Y. and Shen, Y., (2017). How shared leadership and team personality composition interact to improve entrepreneurial team performance:Evidence from China. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 24(3), 426-445.
電子全文 Fulltext
論文使用權限 Thesis access permission:自定論文開放時間 user define
開放時間 Available:
校內 Campus:開放下載的時間 available 2025-08-10
校外 Off-campus:開放下載的時間 available 2025-08-10

您的 IP(校外) 位址是
現在時間是 2023-06-08
論文校外開放下載的時間是 2025-08-10

Your IP address is
The current date is 2023-06-08
This thesis will be available to you on 2025-08-10.

QR Code