Responsive image
博碩士論文 etd-0801122-143158 詳細資訊
Title page for etd-0801122-143158
The Priming Effects of Candidate Image on Facebook: Case Study of 2016 and 2020 Taiwan Legislative Elections
Year, semester
Number of pages
Advisory Committee
Date of Exam
Date of Submission
Political Communication, Agenda Setting, Social Media, Priming Effect, Self-disclosure
本論文已被瀏覽 94 次,被下載 32
The thesis/dissertation has been browsed 94 times, has been downloaded 32 times.
近年來,越來越多的候選人使用臉書上的貼文和競選活動影響選民。在本研究將討論候選人臉書貼文中的形象塑造策略對於網友的形象感知和回應行為的議題設定效果(agenda setting)以及議題預示效果(issue priming)。藉由考察台灣2016年以及2020年的區域立法委員選舉,本研究探討候選人是如何利用他們在臉書上所展現的個人特質、揭露私下生活以及與選民頻繁互動影響選民對他們的印象和對其臉書貼文的回應行為,來檢驗相關的研究假設。藉由對候選人在臉書上的貼文進行電腦內容分析,本研究測量了候選人貼文中所強調的特質屬性。隨後,本研究使用候選人貼文的這些特徵來預測選民評論中所表達的候選人形象感知和回應行為。
Establishing and using public Facebook fan pages have become the most common strategy for promoting and building Taiwanese legislative election candidates’ images in recent years.
The main purpose of this case study of the 2016 and 2020 Taiwan legislative elections is to investigate how legislative election candidates’ image building on Facebook fan pages influences voters’ reactions by agenda setting effects which include priming effects and trait attributes. The researcher attempted to see how legislative candidates reveal their personalities, and personal lives on their Facebook fan pages. In addition, the researcher also attempted to find out how the frequency of interaction of candidates with voters influences their impressions.
Computer content analysis is used to test candidates’ traits and find out how candidates’ Facebook strategies can affect voters’ impressions and reactions.
目次 Table of Contents
論文審定書 i
摘要 ii
Abstract iii
第一章、緒論 1
第一節、研究背景與動機 1
第二節、研究問題 2
第三節、研究目的 3
第二章、文獻回顧 5
第一節、候選人人格特徵之概念 5
一、 「候選人人格特質形象」的重要性 5
二、 「選民對候選人人格特質感知」的重要性 5
三、 「候選人人格特質」的概念和測量方法 6
第二節、議題設定效果 8
第三節、特質凸顯策略及屬性的議題設定效果 9
第四節、屬性預示效果策略 11
一、 屬性和形象的預示效果 11
二、 預示效果的心理機制和調節因素 13
第五節、個人化和解釋水平理論下的預示效果 15
第三章、研究方法 19
第一節、內容樣本和資料搜集 19
第二節、測量的變項與使用的字典 20
第四章、資料分析與結果 22
第一節、 候選人特徵對貼文形象策略的影響 22
第二節、 候選人貼文形象策略對形象感知和回應行為的影響 25
第三節、 候選人自我揭露私生活策略對回應行為的影響 27
第四節、 候選人互動頻率及形象策略對選民回應行為的影響 29
第五章、研究結論與未來建議 33
第一節、 研究結論 33
一、候選人在臉書貼文中人格特質展現的使用 33
二、候選人在臉書貼文中揭露私人生活與人格特質策略與選民回應關係 34
三、候選人互動頻率及形象策略對選民回應行為的影響的討論。 35
第二節、 理論與實務貢獻 35
一、理論貢獻 35
二、實務貢獻 36
第三節、 研究限制與未來研究建議 37
一、研究限制 37
二、未來研究建議 38
參考文獻 39
附錄一 R語言程式碼 52
附錄二 五大人格特質字典 58
參考文獻 References
張卿卿. (2010). 台灣選舉中的競選廣告與議題/特質所有權認知. 傳播與社會學刊, (11), 31-69.

Abelson, R. P., Kinder, D. R., Peters, M. D., & Fiske, S. T. (1982). Affective and semantic components in political person perception. Journal of personality and social psychology, 42(4), 619.
Allan Louden and Kirsten McCauliff, 2004. “The ‘authentic candidate’: Extending candidate image assessment,” In Kenneth Hacker (editor). Presidential candidate images. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield, pp. 85–103.
Amsalem, E., Zoizner, A., Sheafer, T., Walgrave, S., & Loewen, P. J. (2020). The effect of politicians’ personalities on their media visibility. Communication Research, 47(7), 1079-1102.
Arendt, F. (2013). Dose-dependent media priming effects of stereotypic newspaper articles on implicit and explicit stereotypes. Journal of Communication, 63(5), 830-851.
Arendt, F. (2017). Investigating the Negation of Media Stereotypes. Journal of Media Psychology.
Balmas, M., & Sheafer, T. (2010). Candidate image in election campaigns: Attribute agenda setting, affective priming, and voting intentions. International journal of public opinion research, 22(2), 204-229.
Bartels, Larry M. (2002). ‘‘The Impact of Candidate Traits in American Presidential Elections.’’ In Leaders’ Personalities and the Outcomes of Democratic Elections, ed. Anthony King. New York: Oxford University Press, 44–70.
Behr, R. L., & Iyengar, S. (1985). Television news, real-world cues, and change in the public agenda. Public Opinion Quarterly, 49, 38-57.
Bene, M. (2017). Go viral on the Facebook! Interactions between candidates and followers on Facebook during the Hungarian general election campaign of 2014. Information, Communication & Society, 20(4), 513-529.
Bene, M. (2018). Post shared, vote shared: Investigating the link between Facebook performance and electoral success during the Hungarian general election campaign of 2014. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 95(2), 363-380.
Bittner, A., and D.A. Peterson. (2018). Introduction: Personality, party leaders, and election campaigns. Electoral Studies 54: 237–239.
Caprara, G. V., Vecchione, M., Barbaranelli, C., & Fraley, R. C. (2007). When likeness goes with liking: The case of political preference. Political Psychology, 28(5), 609-632.
Christenson, D. P., Smidt, C. D., & Panagopoulos, C. (2014). Deus ex Machina: Candidate web presence and the presidential nomination campaign. Political Research Quarterly, 67(1), 108-122.
Collins, A.M., & Loftus, E.F. (1975). A spread-activation theory of semantic processing. Psychological Review, 82, 407-428.
Costa, P. T. Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). NEO Personality Inventory– Revised (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) pro- fessional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Dearing, J. W., & Rogers, E. M. (1996). Agenda Setting. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Dillman Carpentier, F. R., Roskos-Ewoldsen, D. R., & Roskos-Ewoldsen, B. B. (2008). A test of the network models of political priming. Media Psychology, 11(2), 186-206.Dolan, K. (2004). Voting for Women: How the Public Evaluates Women Candidates. Boulder, CO.
Digman, J. M., & Takemoto-Chock, N. K. (1981). Factors in the natural language of personality: Re-analysis, comparison, and interpretation of six major studies. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 16, 149–170.
Druckman, J. N., Jacobs, L. R., & Ostermeier, E. (2004). Candidate strategies to prime issues and image. The Journal of Politics, 66(4), 1180-1202.
Duerst-Lahti, Georgia.( 2006). “Gender and Congressional Elections.” In Gender and Elections: Shaping the Future of American Politics, eds. Susan J. Carroll and Richard L. Fox. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Evans, H. K., Cordova, V., & Sipole, S. (2014). Twitter style: An analysis of how house candidates used Twitter in their 2012 campaigns. PS: Political Science & Politics, 47(2), 454-462.
Fan, D. P., Brosius, H. B., & Kepplinger, H. M. (1994). Predictions of the public agenda from television coverage. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 38(2), 163-177.
Fenno, R. F. (1978). Home Style: House Members in Their Districts Glenview. IL: Scott, Foresman, and Company.
Fenno, Richard F. (1996). Senators on the Campaign Trail. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J., & Glick, P. (2007). Universal dimensions of social cognition: Warmth and competence. Trends in cognitive sciences, 11(2), 77-83.
Fiske, S. T., & Taylor, S. E. (1991). Social cognition. Mcgraw-Hill Book Company.
Fridkin, K. L., & Kenney, P. J. (2011). The role of candidate traits in campaigns. The Journal of Politics, 73(1), 61-73.
Fox, R. L. (1997). Gender dynamics in congressional elections (Vol. 2). Sage.
Fox, R. L. (2000). Gender and congressional elections. Gender and American politics: Women, men, and the political process, 227-56.
Funk, Carolyn L. (1996). ‘‘The Impact of Scandal on Candidate Evaluations: An Experimental Test of the Role of Candidate Traits.’’ Political Behavior 18: 1–24.
Gerodimos, R., & Justinussen, J. (2015). Obama’s 2012 Facebook campaign: Political communication in the age of the like button. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 12(2), 113-132.
Ghanem, S. I. (1997). Filling in the tapestry: The second level of agenda setting. In M. McCombs, D. L. Shaw, & D. Weaver (Eds.), Communication and democracy: Exploring the intellectual frontiers in agenda-setting theory (pp. 3–14). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum
Golan, G., & Wanta, W. (2001). Second-level agenda setting in the New Hampshire primary: A comparison of coverage in three newspapers and public perceptions of candidates. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 78, 247–259.
Goldberg, L. R. (1990). An alternative “description of personality”: The Big-Five factor structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 1216–1229.
Gibson, R. K., & McAllister, I. (2011). Do online election campaigns win votes? The 2007 Australian “YouTube” election. Political Communication, 28(2), 227-244.
Guo, L. (2017). Agenda-setting: Individual-level effects versus aggregate-level effects. In P. Rössler, C.A. Hoffner, & L. van Zoonen (Eds.), The International Encyclopedia of Media Effects (pp.1-11). Wiley Online Library: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Hayes, D. (2005). Candidate qualities through a partisan lens: A theory of trait ownership. American Journal of Political Science, 49(4), 908-923.
Herrnson, Paul S. 1995. Congressional Elections: Campaigning at Home and in Washington. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.
Higgins, E. T. (1996). Activation: Accessibility, and salience. In E.T. Higgins & A.W Kruglanski (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (pp.133-168). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Higgins, E. T., Bargh, J. A., & Lombardi, W. J. (1985). Nature of priming effects on categorization. Journal of experimental psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 11(1), 59.
Huang, C., Li, C., & Shi, G. (2012). Graphene based catalysts. Energy & Environmental Science, 5(10), 8848-8868.
Humphreys, A., & Wang, R. J. H. (2018). Automated text analysis for consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 44(6), 1274-1306.
Iyengar, S., & Kinder, D. R. (1987). News that matters: Agenda-setting and priming in a television age. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Iyengar, S., Peters, M. D., & Kinder, D. R. (1982). Experimental demonstrations of the “not-so-minimal” consequences of television news programs. American political science review, 76(4), 848-858
Iyengar, S., & Simon, A. (1993). News coverage of the Gulf crisis and public opinion: A study of agenda-setting, priming, and framing. Communication research, 20(3), 365-383.
Jamieson, K. H., & Hall, K. (1995). Beyond the double bind: Women and leadership. Oxford University Press on Demand.
Jones, Edward E., and Keith E. Davis. (1965). ‘‘From Acts to Dispositions: The Attribution Process in Person Perception.’’ In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, ed. Leonard Berkowitz. New York: Academic Press, 219–66.
Kahn, Kim Fridkin, and Patrick J. Kenney. 1999. The Spectacle of U.S. Senate Campaigns. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Krosnick, J. A., & Kinder, D. R. (1990). Altering the foundations of support for the president through priming. American Political Science Review, 84(2), 497-512.
Kim, S. H., Scheufele, D. A., & Shanahan, J. (2002). Think about it this way: Attribute agenda-setting function of the press and the public's evaluation of a local issue. Journalism & mass communication quarterly, 79(1), 7-25.
Kim, S. H., Han, M., & Scheufele, D. A. (2010). Think about him this way: Priming, news media, and South Koreans’ evaluation of the president. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 22(3), 299-319.
Kiousis, S. (2005). Compelling arguments and attitude strength—Exploring the impact of second-level agenda setting on public opinion of presidential candidate images. Harvard International Journal of Press-Politics, 10, 3–27.
Kiousis, S., Bantimaroudis, P., & Ban, H. (1999). Candidate image attributes—Experiments on the substantive dimension of second level agenda setting. Communication Research, 26, 414–428.
Kim, S. H., Scheufele, D. A., & Shanahan, J. (2002). Think about it this way: Attribute agenda-setting function of the press and the public's evaluation of a local issue. Journalism & mass communication quarterly, 79(1), 7-25.
Kinder, D. R. (1986). Presidential character revisited. R.R.Lau, D.O. Sears (Eds.), Political cognition. (pp. 233-255). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
King, P. (1997). The press, candidate images, and voter perceptions. In M. McCombs, D. L. Shaw, & D. Weaver (Eds.), Communication and democracy: Exploring the intellectual frontiers in agenda-setting theory (pp. 29–40). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
King, K. P. (2002). Educational technology professional development as transformative learning opportunities. Computers & Education, 39(3), 283-297.
Kruikemeier, S. (2014). How political candidates use Twitter and the impact on votes. Computers in human behavior, 34, 131-139.
Kruikemeier, S., Van Noort, G., Vliegenthart, R., & De Vreese, C. H. (2013). Getting closer: The effects of personalized and interactive online political communication. European journal of communication, 28(1), 53-66.
Lau, R. R., & Redlawsk, D. P. (2006). How voters decide: Information processing in election campaigns. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Laustsen, L., & Bor, A. (2017). The relative weight of character traits in political candidate evaluations: Warmth is more important than competence, leadership and integrity. Electoral Studies, 49, 96-107.
Laver, M., & Garry, J. (2000). Estimating policy positions from political texts. American Journal of Political Science, 619-634.
López-Escobar E., Sádaba T. (2017). Agenda-Setting: Second Level Perspective and Cognitive versus Persuasive Effects. W: P. Rossler (ed.). The International Encyclopedia of Media Effects (p. 38–45). Chichester.
Mackuen, M. (1981). Social communication and the mass policy agenda. In M. Mackuen & S. L. Commbs(Eds.), More then news: Media power in public affairs. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Marwick, A. E., & Boyd, D. (2011). I tweet honestly, I tweet passionately: Twitter users, context collapse, and the imagined audience. New media & society, 13(1), 114-133.
Markus, Gregory B. (1982). ‘‘Political Attitudes during an Election Year: A Report on the 1980 NES Panel Study.’’ American Political Science Review 76: 538–60.
McAllister, I. (2016). Candidates and voting choice. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics.

McCombs, M. (2004). Setting the agenda: the mass media and public opinion. Cambridge: Polity Press.
McCombs, M., & Ghanem, S. I. (2003). The convergence of agenda setting and framing. In S. D. Reese, O. H. J. Gandy, & A. E. Grant (Eds.), Framing public life: Perspectives on media and our understanding of the social world (pp. 67–82). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
McCombs, M., Llamas, J. P., Lopez-Escobar, E., & Rey, F. (1997). Candidate images in Spanish elections: Second-level agenda-setting effects. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 74(4), 703-717.
McCombs, M., & Shaw, D. L. (1972). The agenda-setting function of the mass media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 36, 176–187.
McGraw, K. M. (2001). Political accounts and attribution processes.
McGraw, K. M. (2003). Political impressions: Formation and management. In L.H., David, O., Sears, R. Jervis (Eds.). Oxford Handbook of Political Psychology, pp. 394-432. NY: Oxford University Press.
McGraw, K.M. (2011). Candidate impression and evaluation in J.N. Druckman, D.P.Green, J.H. Kuklinski, A. Lupia (Eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Experimental Political Science, pp. 187-200. Cambridge University Press.
McGregor, S. C. (2018). Personalization, social media, and voting: Effects of candidate self-personalization on vote intention. New media & society, 20(3), 1139-1160.
McGregor, S. C., & Mourão, R. R. (2016). Talking politics on Twitter: Gender, elections, and social networks. Social media+ society, 2(3), 2056305116664218.

Meeks, L. (2012). Is she ‘‘man enough’’? Women candidates, executive political offices, and news coverage. Journal of Communication, 62(1), 175–193.
Miller, Joanne M., and Jon A. Krosnick. 2000. “News Media Impact on the Ingredients of Presidential Evaluations.” American Journal of Political Science 44(2): 295–309.
Nielsen, R. K., & Vaccari, C. (2013). Do people “like” politicians on Facebook? Not really. Large-scale direct candidate-to-voter online communication as an outlier phenomenon. International Journal of Communication, 7, 24.
Norman, W. T. (1963). Toward an adequate taxonomy of personality attributes: Replicated factor structure in peer nomination personality ratings. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66, 574–583.
Oh, H. J., & Lee, B. (2012). The effect of computer-mediated social support in online communities on patient empowerment and doctor–patient communication. Health communication, 27(1), 30-41.
Peterson, D. A. (2018). The dynamic construction of candidate image. Electoral Studies, 54, 289-296.
Peña, J. F. (2011). Integrating the influence of perceiving and operating avatars under the automaticity model of priming effects. Communication Theory, 21(2), 150-168.
Pennebaker, J. W., Francis, M. E., & Booth, R. J. (2001). Linguistic inquiry and word count: LIWC 2001. Mahway: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 71(2001), 2001.
Petrocik, J. R. (1996). Issue ownership in presidential elections, with a 1980 case study. American journal of political science, 825-850.
Popkin, S. L. (1994). The reasoning voter: Communication and persuasion in presidential campaigns. University of Chicago Press
Price, V., Tewksbury, D., & Powers, E. (1997). Switching trains of thought: The impact of news frames on readers' cognitive responses. Communication research, 24(5), 481-506.
Rapoport, R. B., Metcalf, K. L., & Hartman, J. A. (1989). Candidate traits and voter inferences: An experimental study. The Journal of Politics, 51(4), 917-932.
Riddle, K. (2010). Always on my mind: Exploring how frequent, recent, and vivid television portrayals are used in the formation of social reality judgments. Media Psychology, 13(2), 155-179.
Rogers, E. M., & Dearing, J. W.(1988). Agenda-setting research: Where has it been and where is it going? In J. A. Anderson(Ed.), Communication yearbook 11. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Rosenberg, J., & Egbert, N. (2011). Online impression management: Personality traits and concerns for secondary goals as predictors of self-presentation tactics on Facebook. Journal of computer-mediated communication, 17(1), 1-18.
Roskos-Ewoldsen, D. R. (1997). Attitude accessibility and persuasion: Review and a transactive model. Annals of the International Communication Association, 20(1), 185-225.
Roskos-Ewoldsen, D. R., Klinger, M. R., & Roskos-Ewoldsen, B. (2007). Media priming: A meta-analysis. Mass media effects research: Advances through meta-analysis, 53-80.
Roskos-Ewoldsen, D. R., & Roskos-Ewoldsen, B. (2009). Media priming: An updated synthesis. In Media effects (pp. 90-109). Routledge.
Saucier, G., & Goldberg, L. R. (1996). Evidence for the Big Five in analyses of familiar English personality adjectives. European journal of Personality, 10(1), 61-77.
Sheafer, T. (2007). How to evaluate it: The role of story-evaluative tone in agenda setting and priming. Journal of Communication, 57(1), 21-39.
Štětka, V., & Mazák, J. (2014). Whither slacktivism? Political engagement and social media use in the 2013 Czech Parliamentary elections. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 8(3).
Stanyer, J. (2008). Elected representatives, online self-presentation and the personal vote: Party, personality and webstyles in the United States and United Kingdom. Information, Community & Society, 11(3), 414-432.
Svensson, J. (2011). The expressive turn of citizenship in digital late modernity. JeDEM-eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government, 3(1), 42-56.
Sweetser, K. D., & Lariscy, R. W. (2008). Candidates make good friends: An analysis of candidates' uses of Facebook. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 2(3), 175-198.
Tan, Y., & Shaw, P. (2018). Attribute-Priming Effects on Presidential Approval: The Role of Risk Perception and Trust in Government Regulation. Issues & Studies, 54(03), 1840004.
Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2010). Construal-level theory of psychological distance. Psychological review, 117(2), 440.
Timmermans, E., & Sparks, G. G. (2017). Personality Traits: Influence on Media Effects. The International Encyclopedia of Media Effects, 1-11.
Tulving, E. (1972). 12. Episodic and Semantic Memory. Organization of memory/Eds E. Tulving, W. Donaldson, NY: Academic Press, 381-403.
Tupes, E. C., & Christal, R. E. (1961). Recurrent personality factors based on trait ratings. (Tech. Rep. No. 61–97). Lackland Air Force Base, TX: U.S. Air Force
Tupes, E. C., & Christal, R. E. (1992). Recurrent personality factors based on trait ratings. Journal of Personality, 60, 225–251.

West, Darrell. (2004). Air Wars: Television Advertising in Election Campaigns 1952–2004, Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.
電子全文 Fulltext
論文使用權限 Thesis access permission:校內校外完全公開 unrestricted
開放時間 Available:
校內 Campus: 已公開 available
校外 Off-campus: 已公開 available

紙本論文 Printed copies
開放時間 available 已公開 available

QR Code