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姓名 戴榮賦(Rong-Fuh Day) 電子郵件信箱 de600620@ms4.hinet.net
畢業系所 資訊管理學系研究所(Information Management)
畢業學位 博士(Ph.D.) 畢業時期 93學年第2學期
論文名稱(中) 呈現方式一致性與自我效能對於多屬性決策表現的影響
論文名稱(英) The effects of display congruence and self-efficacy on multi-attribute decision making
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    摘要(中) 在呈現方式對於決策表現影響的研究上,近年來大多數的研究都偏重在呈現方式與任務一致性的探討,而忽視了動機因素在認知歷程中所扮演的重要角色。因此,本研究試著將資管領域常用的動機因素—自我效能納入呈現方式一致性的研究中,以瞭解兩者對於決策表現(決策正確性)的影響為何。
    本研究從南台科技大學招募了30位受測者參與實驗,從其中挑選出合格的20位受測者。然後依據自我效能信念問卷的得分將這20位受測者分為高、低自我效能2組。其次,本研究從表格呈現方式與多屬性決策間的關係中分別出高一致性與低一致性2種決策的情境。每位受測者在兩種決策情境下依固定的順序分別完成2個多屬性決策任務。決策者被要求使用elimination-by-aspects策略解決決策任務。因此,整個實驗設計是2(自我效能高、低)×2(呈現方式一致性高、低)的混合式二因子實驗設計,自我效能是受測者間因子,而呈現方式是受測者內因子。除此之外,在受測者的決策過程,我也使用眼動儀追蹤受測者注視點的位置與瞳孔大小。
    研究結果顯示,當呈現方式由一致性高轉為一致性低時,(1)受測者在決策正確性上沒有顯著地差異,(2)決策時間顯著地增長,(3)資訊擷取方向由原本偏向屬性為主的方向轉為品牌為主的方向,以及(4)認知負荷的強度(瞳孔大小)也顯著地提升。另外,在自我效能上,我的研究發現自我效能信念能夠顯著地預測(1)目標承諾、(2)認知負荷強度、與(3)決策正確性。最後,我們發現到,(1)當從一致性轉為不一致性的情況時,高自我效能者增加的認知負荷強度比低自我效能者來得多。(2)在不一致性的情況時,高自我效能者比低自我效能者願意付出更高的認知負荷強度應付下一個任務。
    摘要(英) In the past, a considerable amount of research has been conducted into the effects of congruence between information display and task requirement on decision-making performance. The theoretical base for these works is the cost-benefit framework, which explains that the effort of decision makers will depend on the level of accuracy expected and the cost of the strategy employed to complete the task. In this research, the factor of self-efficacy is integrated into the cost-benefit framework for predicting decision making performance. An experiment was designed with two factors, display congruence and self-efficacy. The display congruence is a within-subject factor with 2 levels, high congruence and low congruence; the self-efficacy is a between-subject factor with 2 levels, high versus low. Subjects’ eye movements were also tracked with an apparatus, eye tracker. 
    A total of 30 subjects participated in the experiment and 20 were found to be valid based on an analysis of the eye movement data. These subjects were divided into high and low self-efficacy groups according to their scores of self-efficacy measurement. The results show that when the congruence is low, subjects spent significantly longer decision time and changed information acquisition direction than they do when the congruence is high, although there was no difference in decision accuracy between these two conditions. Self-efficacy is found to significantly predict goal commitment, intensity of effort, and decision accuracy. In addition, when subjects moved from the situation of high congruence display to the low congruence one, high self-efficacy subjects were found to increase their level of effort more than low self-efficacy subjects.
    關鍵字(中)
  • 自我效能
  • 決策行為
  • 呈現方式
  • 眼動儀
  • 一致性
  • 關鍵字(英)
  • decision making
  • eye tracker
  • information display
  • self-efficacy
  • 論文目次 1.緒論 4
    1.1.研究背景與動機 4
    1.2.研究目 7
    1.3.研究方法 8
    2.文獻探討 9
    2.1.資訊呈現方式 9
    2.1.1.研究的回顧與進展 9
    2.1.2.成本效益分析與合適性 14
    2.2.表格安排方式與多屬性決策任務的一致性 15
    2.2.1.多屬性決策問題 16
    2.2.2.基礎訊息處理與策略選擇 16
    2.2.3.表格安排方式與決策策略的一致性問題 18
    2.2.4.追蹤方法 18
    2.3.自我效能 19
    2.3.1.在成本效益分析與決策行為研究的預設觀點 19
    2.3.2.發生在行動之前—先見(Forethought) 21
    3.研究方法 26
    3.1.研究架構與假說 26
    3.1.1.呈現方式與任務一致性假說 26
    3.1.2.自我效能假說 28
    3.1.3.發生在個人目標信念與自我效能信念到行為表現之間 30
    3.1.4. 在不一致情況下決策者的調適行為 31
    3.2.受測者 32
    3.3.任務與呈現方式的一致性 32
    3.3.1.任務 32
    3.3.2.呈現方式 33
    3.3.3.一致性 36
    3.4.自我效能 36
    3.5.實驗設計與程序 37
    3.6.其他變數與測量方式 40
    3.6.1.目標承諾(goal commitment) 40
    3.6.2.認知負荷強度(intensity of effort) 40
    3.6.3.決策時間 41
    3.6.4.決策正確性 41
    3.6.5.資訊擷取方向 41
    3.7.研究設備 42
    4.資料分析 44
    4.1.樣本基本資料分析與問卷信度 44
    4.2.自我效能分組 44
    4.3.呈現方式一致性效果 45
    4.4.自我效能信念、目標承諾、認知負荷到決策正確性間之路徑分析 49
    4.4.1.各變數之間的相關分析 49
    4.4.2.回歸分析 50
    4.5.同時用自我效能與呈現方式進行分析 52
    4.5.1.呈現方式與自我效能的主要效果 52
    4.5.2.高、低自我效能組認知負荷強度的變化 53
    4.6.其餘分析 56
    5.結論 57
    5.1.呈現方式 57
    5.2.自我效能信念 58
    5.3.在不一致情況下決策者的調適行為 59
    5.4.研究限制與未來研究 59
    參考文獻 61
    《表目錄》
    表格 1. 決策策略與呈現方式的一致性[整理BETTMAN ET AL.(1979)的研究發現]。 36
    表格 2. 本研究所用自我效能問卷 37
    表格 3. 二因子混合式實驗設計 38
    表格 4. 目標承諾量表 40
    表格 5. 受測者依據自我效能信念分組作為資料分析的依據 45
    表格 6. 高、低自我效能組前後任務的比較 46
    表格 7. 重要變數之相關矩陣 49
    表格 8. 混合設計二因子變異數分析—決策時間 53
    表格 9. 混合設計二因子變異數分析—決策正確性 53
    表格 10. 高、低自我效能組前後任務的比較 54
    表格 11. 研究假說整理 55
    《圖目錄》
    圖 1. KLEINMUNTZ AND SCHKADE(1993)所提出的成本效益分析的架構。在這個架構中將決策者所知到的有關一項策略的認知負荷與正確性分為預期性的與經驗性的兩種。 5
    圖 2. 研究議題的進展 9
    圖 3. 「合適性」成為各種呈現方式上共通的議題 11
    圖 4. 資訊呈現方式研究架構分類 12
    圖 5. 決策的歷程是由一系列的運算所構成(HOLLAND ET AL., 1986) 17
    圖 6. 任務進行前除了進行任務分析外也同時產生動機信念,節錄自(ZIMMERMAN, 2000)。 22
    圖 7. KANFER AND ACKERMAN(1989)模式中投入心理資源前考量的三種關係。 22
    圖 8. KANFER AND ACKERMAN(1989)模式。 22
    圖 9. 個人因素、行為、與環境三者之間的交互作用(TRIADIC RECIPROCALITY)。 24
    圖 10. 呈現方式一致性與自我效能研究架構。 26
    圖 11. WOOD AND BANDURA(1989)探討自我效能信念、個人目標、與任務表現的研究架構 28
    圖 12. 自我效能、個人目標與任務表現之關係圖 29
    圖 13. 自我效能與任務表現因果模式。 30
    圖 14. 上圖是品牌為主安排方式的實際例子,下圖為相對的實驗刺激物。 34
    圖 15. 上圖是依矩陣為主安排方式的實際例子,下圖為相對的實驗刺激物。 35
    圖 16. 實驗程序 39
    圖 17. 資訊擷取方向指標說明圖 42
    圖 18. 眼動儀設備,圖片來自於 SR RESEARCH LTD.。 43
    圖 19. 在逐次TRIAL中決策時間變化。 47
    圖 20. 在逐次TRIAL中決策正確性變化。 47
    圖 21. 在逐次TRIAL中擷取方向變化。 48
    圖 22. 在逐次TRIAL中瞳孔大小變化。 48
    圖 23. 變數之間相關係數—以決策正確性代表決策表現。 50
    圖 24. 路徑分析結果—以決策正確性代表決策表現。 51
    圖 25.高低自我效能組在瞳孔大小上的變化。 55
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