Responsive image
博碩士論文 etd-0919121-201020 詳細資訊
Title page for etd-0919121-201020
主管矛盾思維對團隊建言行為的影響: 檢視衝突管理的中介角色及 領導-成員交換關係差異化的干擾效果
The Effect of Leader’s Paradox Mindset on Team Voice Behavior: Mediating Role of Conflict Management and Moderating Effect of Leader-member Exchange Differentiation
Year, semester
Number of pages
Advisory Committee
Date of Exam
Date of Submission
paradox theory, paradox mindset, conflict management, leader-member exchange differentiation, voice behavior
本論文已被瀏覽 188 次,被下載 48
The thesis/dissertation has been browsed 188 times, has been downloaded 48 times.
This research explored the relationship between a leader's paradox mindset and team voice behavior by paradox theory, and meanwhile examined the mediating role of cooperative and competitive conflict management, as well as the moderating effect of leader-member exchange differentiation. This study involved a two-phase questionnaire survey, filled by leaders and members. Finally, a total of 51 teams with 51 leaders and 210 members' data were used in quantitative analyses. The results indicated that the leader’s paradox mindset is positively correlated with cooperative conflict management, and cooperative approach is also positively associated with team voice behavior. Moreover, the result revealed the full mediating effects of cooperative conflict management in the liaison between leaders’ paradox mindset and team members’ voice behavior. This study suggested the factors which affect the team voice behavior from a paradox and conflict perspective, extending voice behavior research in several ways. The findings of this research also emphasized that the leader’s paradox mindset and conflict management approach could bring constructive results to the team.
目次 Table of Contents
論文審定書 i
誌謝 ii
摘要 iii
Abstract iv
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Research Objectives 3
1.3 Research Procedure 4
2. Literature Review 6
2.1 Paradox Theory 6
2.2 Studied Variables 7
2.2.1 Leader’s Paradox Mindset 7
2.2.2 Conflict Management in Teams 9
2.2.3 LMX Differentiation 10
2.2.4 Team Voice Behavior 12
2.2.5 Summary of Previous Findings Related with Voice Behavior 13
2.3 Hypotheses 19
2.3.1 Leader’s Paradox Mindset and Conflict Management in Teams 19
2.3.2 Team Conflict Management and Voice Behavior 20
2.3.3 Mediating Roles of Team Conflict Management 22
2.3.4 LMX Differentiation as a Moderator 23
3. Research Design 25
3.1 Research Framework 25
3.2 Summary of Hypotheses 25
3.3 Sample and Data Collection 26
3.4 Measurements 27
3.4.1 Leader’s Paradox Mindset 28
3.4.2 Conflict Management in Teams 28
3.4.3 LMX Differentiation 29
3.4.4 Team Voice Behavior 30
3.4.5 Control Variables 31
3.5 Analyses 31
4. Research Results 33
4.1 Reliability and Validity Checks 33
4.2 Correlation Analysis 34
4.3 Hypotheses Testing 34
5. Discussion 39
5.1 Summary of Research Findings 39
5.2 Theoretical Implications 40
5.3 Practical Implications 41
5.4 Limitations and Future Research 42
References 45

參考文獻 References
Aldag, R. J., & Fuller, S. R. (1993). Beyond fiasco: A reappraisal of the groupthink phenomenon and a new model of group decision processes. Psychological Bulletin, 113(3), 533-552.
Alper, S., Tjosvold, D., & Law, K. S. (2000). Conflict management, efficacy, and performance in organizational teams. Personnel Psychology, 53(3), 625-642.
Amason, A. C. (1996). Distinguishing the effects of functional and dysfunctional conflict on strategic decision making: Resolving a paradox for top management teams. Academy of Management Journal, 39(1), 123-148.
Anand, S., Vidyarthi, P. R., Liden, R. C., & Rousseau, D. M. (2010). Good citizens in poor-quality relationships: Idiosyncratic deals as a substitute for relationship quality. Academy of Management Journal, 53(5), 970-988.
Andriopoulos, C., & Lewis, M. W. (2009). Exploitation-exploration tensions and organizational ambidexterity: Managing paradoxes of innovation. Organization Science, 20(4), 696-717.
Anwar, M. (2018). Business model innovation and SMEs performance—does competitive advantage mediate?. International Journal of Innovation Management, 22(07), 1850057.
Artistico, D., Cervone, D., & Pezzuti, L. (2003). Perceived self-efficacy and everyday problem solving among young and older adults. Psychology and Aging, 18(1), 68-79.
Ashforth, B. E., Rogers, K. M., Pratt, M. G., & Pradies, C. (2014). Ambivalence in organizations: A multilevel approach. Organization Science, 25(5), 1453-1478.
Barney, J. B. (2001). Is the resource-based “view” a useful perspective for strategic management research? Yes. Academy of Management Review, 26(1), 41-56.
Bashshur, M. R., & Oc, B. (2015). When voice matters: A multilevel review of the impact of voice in organizations. Journal of Management, 41(5), 1530-1554.
Bassett‐Jones, N. (2005). The paradox of diversity management, creativity and innovation. Creativity and Innovation Management, 14(2), 169-175
Bell, S. T. (2007). Deep-level composition variables as predictors of team performance: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(3), 595-615.
Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 238-246.
Besharov, M. L. (2014). The relational ecology of identification: How organizational identification emerges when individuals hold divergent values. Academy of Management Journal, 57(5), 1485-1512.
Bliese, P. D. (2000). Within-group agreement, non-independence, and reliability: Implications for data aggregation and analysis.
Boies, K., & Howell, J. M. (2006). Leader–member exchange in teams: An examination of the interaction between relationship differentiation and mean LMX in explaining team-level outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(3), 246-257.
Boulding, K. E. (1963). Towards a pure theory of threat systems. The American Economic Review, 53(2), 424-434.
Brief, A. P., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1986). Prosocial organizational behaviors. Academy of Management Review, 11(4), 710-725.
Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 1(3), 185-216.
Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing Structural Equation Models (pp. 136-162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage
Burris, E. R., Detert, J. R., & Chiaburu, D. S. (2008). Quitting before leaving: the mediating effects of psychological attachment and detachment on voice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(4), 912-922.
Cameron, K. S. (1986). Effectiveness as paradox: Consensus and conflict in conceptions of organizational effectiveness. Management Science, 32(5), 539-553.
Carmines, E., & Mclver, J. (1981). Analyzing models with unobserved models: Analysis of covariance structures. Beverly Hills. Social Measurement: Current Issues, 65-115.
Chan, D. (1998). Functional relations among constructs in the same content domain at different levels of analysis: A typology of composition models. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(2), 234-246.
Chen, G., & Bliese, P. D. (2002). The role of different levels of leadership in predicting self-and collective efficacy: evidence for discontinuity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 549-556.
Chen, A. S. Y., & Hou, Y. H. (2016). The effects of ethical leadership, voice behavior and climates for innovation on creativity: A moderated mediation examination. The Leadership Quarterly, 27(1), 1-13.
Chen, G., Liu, C., & Tjosvold, D. (2005). Conflict management for effective top management teams and innovation in China. Journal of Management Studies, 42(2), 277-300.
Cobb, A. T., & Lau, R. S. (2015). Trouble at the next level: Effects of differential leader–member exchange on group-level processes and justice climate. Human Relations, 68(9), 1437-1459.
Das, T. K., & Teng, B. S. (2000). Instabilities of strategic alliances: An internal tensions perspective. Organization Science, 11(1), 77-101.
De Dreu, C. K., & Weingart, L. R. (2003). Task versus relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(4), 741-749.
De Dreu, C. K. (2007). Cooperative outcome interdependence, task reflexivity, and team effectiveness: a motivated information processing perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(3), 628-638.
DeChurch, L. A., Mesmer-Magnus, J. R., & Doty, D. (2013). Moving beyond relationship and task conflict: toward a process-state perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(4), 559-578.
Detert, J. R., & Burris, E. R. (2007). Leadership behavior and employee voice: Is the door really open?. Academy of Management Journal, 50(4), 869-884.
Deutsch, M. (1973). The resolution of conflict: Constructive and destructive processes. Yale University Press.
Duan, J., Li, C., Xu, Y., & Wu, C. H. (2017). Transformational leadership and employee voice behavior: A Pygmalion mechanism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 38(5), 650-670.
Dyne, L. V., Ang, S., & Botero, I. C. (2003). Conceptualizing employee silence and employee voice as multidimensional constructs. Journal of Management Studies, 40(6), 1359-1392.
Edmondson, A. C., Roberto, M. A., & Watkins, M. D. (2003). A dynamic model of top management team effectiveness: Managing unstructured task streams. The Leadership Quarterly, 14(3), 297-325.
Efran, J. S., Chorney, R. L., Ascher, L. M., & Lukens, M. D. (1989). Coping styles, paradox, and the cold pressor task. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 12(1), 91-103.
Erdogan, B., & Bauer, T. N. (2010). Differentiated leader–member exchanges: the buffering role of justice climate. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(6), 1104-1120.
Feng, T., Wang, D., Lawton, A., & Luo, B. N. (2019). Customer orientation and firm performance: The joint moderating effects of ethical leadership and competitive intensity. Journal of Business Research, 100, 111-121.
Ford, L. R., & Seers, A. (2006). Relational leadership and team climates: Pitting differentiation versus agreement. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(3), 258-270.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.
Friedman, R., Chi, S. C., & Liu, L. A. (2006). An expectancy model of Chinese–American differences in conflict-avoiding. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(1), 76-91.
George, J. M. (1990). Personality, affect, and behavior in groups. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(2), 107-116.
Graen, G. B., & Scandura, T. A. (1987). Toward a psychology of dyadic organizing. Research in Organizational Behavior.
Grant, A. M., & Ashford, S. J. (2008). The dynamics of proactivity at work. Research in Organizational Behavior, 28, 3-34.
Gruenfeld, D. H., Mannix, E. A., Williams, K. Y., & Neale, M. A. (1996). Group composition and decision making: How member familiarity and information distribution affect process and performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 67(1), 1-15.
Guzman, F. A., & Espejo, A. (2019). Introducing changes at work: How voice behavior relates to management innovation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 40(1), 73-90.
Hair, J.T., Anderson R.E., Tatham, R.L., & Black, W.C. (1997). Multivariate Data Analysis with Readings, 3d ed. New York: Macmillan
Hargrave, T. J., & Van de Ven, A. H. (2017). Integrating dialectical and paradox perspectives on managing contradictions in organizations. Organization Studies, 38(3-4), 319-339.
Harris, T. B., Li, N., & Kirkman, B. L. (2014). Leader–member exchange (LMX) in context: How LMX differentiation and LMX relational separation attenuate LMX's influence on OCB and turnover intention. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(2), 314-328.
Hayes, A. F. (2012). PROCESS: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling.
Henderson, D. J., Liden, R. C., Glibkowski, B. C., & Chaudhry, A. (2009). LMX differentiation: A multilevel review and examination of its antecedents and outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly, 20(4), 517-534.
Hillis, D. M., & Bull, J. J. (1993). An empirical test of bootstrapping as a method for assessing confidence in phylogenetic analysis. Systematic Biology, 42(2), 182-192.
Hooper, D. T., & Martin, R. (2008). Beyond personal leader–member exchange (LMX) quality: The effects of perceived LMX variability on employee reactions. The Leadership Quarterly, 19(1), 20-30.
Hsiung, H. H. (2012). Authentic leadership and employee voice behavior: A multi-level psychological process. Journal of Business Ethics, 107(3), 349-361.
Ilgen, D. R. (1999). Teams embedded in organizations: Some implications. American Psychologist, 54(2), 129.
James, L. R. (1982). Aggregation bias in estimates of perceptual agreement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67(2), 219-139.
Janssen, O., & Gao, L. (2015). Supervisory responsiveness and employee self-perceived status and voice behavior. Journal of Management, 41(7), 1854-1872.
Jehn, K. A., & Mannix, E. A. (2001). The dynamic nature of conflict: A longitudinal study of intragroup conflict and group performance. Academy of Management Journal, 44(2), 238-251.
Jehn, K. A. (1995). A multimethod examination of the benefits and detriments of intragroup conflict. Administrative Science Quarterly, 256-282.
Jehn, K. A. (1997). A qualitative analysis of conflict types and dimensions in organizational groups. Administrative Science Quarterly, 530-557.
Kauppila, O. P. (2015). Alliance management capability and firm performance: Using resource-based theory to look inside the process black box. Long Range Planning, 48(3), 151-167.
Kauppila, O. P. (2016). When and how does LMX differentiation influence followers’ work outcomes? The interactive roles of one's own LMX status and organizational context. Personnel Psychology, 69(2), 357-393.
Keller, J., Chen, E. W., & Leung, A. K. Y. (2018). How national culture influences individuals’ subjective experience with paradoxical tensions. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 25(3), 443-467.
Keller, J., Loewenstein, J., & Yan, J. (2017). Culture, conditions and paradoxical frames. Organization Studies, 38(3-4), 539-560.
Kozlowski, S.W.J., & Klein, K. J. (2000). A multilevel approach to theory and research in organizations: Contextual, temporal, and emergent processes. In K. J. Klein & S.W.J. Kozlowski (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research and methods in organizations: Foundations, extensions, and new directions (pp. 3-90). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Lam, L. W., Peng, K. Z., Wong, C. S., & Lau, D. C. (2017). Is more feedback seeking always better? Leader-member exchange moderates the relationship between feedback-seeking behavior and performance. Journal of Management, 43(7), 2195-2217.
Lauritzen, G. D., & Karafyllia, M. (2019). Perspective: leveraging open innovation through paradox. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 36(1), 107-121.
Le Blanc, P. M., & González-Romá, V. (2012). A team level investigation of the relationship between Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) differentiation, and commitment and performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(3), 534-544.
Leung, A. K. Y., Liou, S., Miron-Spektor, E., Koh, B., Chan, D., Eisenberg, R., & Schneider, I. (2018). Middle ground approach to paradox: Within-and between-culture examination of the creative benefits of paradoxical frames. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 114(3), 443-464.
Lewis, M. W., Andriopoulos, C., & Smith, W. K. (2014). Paradoxical leadership to enable strategic agility. California Management Review, 56(3), 58-77.
Lewis, M. W., & Smith, W. K. (2014). Paradox as a metatheoretical perspective: Sharpening the focus and widening the scope. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 50(2), 127-149.
Lewis, M. W. (2000). Exploring paradox: Toward a more comprehensive guide. Academy of Management Review, 25(4), 760-776.
Li, A. N., & Liao, H. (2014). How do leader–member exchange quality and differentiation affect performance in teams? An integrated multilevel dual process model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(5), 847-866.
Li, Y., & Sun, J. M. (2015). Traditional Chinese leadership and employee voice behavior: A cross-level examination. The Leadership Quarterly, 26(2), 172-189.
Li, Y., Fu, F., Sun, J. M., & Yang, B. (2016). Leader–member exchange differentiation and team creativity: An investigation of nonlinearity. Human Relations, 69(5), 1121-1138.
Liao, H., Liu, D., & Loi, R. (2010). Looking at both sides of the social exchange coin: A social cognitive perspective on the joint effects of relationship quality and differentiation on creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 53(5), 1090-1109.
Liden, R. C., Erdogan, B., Wayne, S. J., & Sparrowe, R. T. (2006). Leader‐member exchange, differentiation, and task interdependence: implications for individual and group performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 27(6), 723-746.
Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., & Stilwell, D. (1993). A longitudinal study on the early development of leader-member exchanges. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4), 662-674.
Liu, W., Zhu, R., & Yang, Y. (2010). I warn you because I like you: Voice behavior, employee identifications, and transformational leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(1), 189-202.
Liu, Y., Xu, S., & Zhang, B. (2020). Thriving at work: How a paradox mindset influences innovative work behavior. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 56(3), 347-366.
Lovelace, K., Shapiro, D. L., & Weingart, L. R. (2001). Maximizing cross-functional new product teams' innovativeness and constraint adherence: A conflict communications perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 44(4), 779-793.
Lüscher, L. S., & Lewis, M. W. (2008). Organizational change and managerial sensemaking: Working through paradox. Academy of Management Journal, 51(2), 221-240.
Margolis, J. D., & Walsh, J. P. (2003). Misery loves companies: Rethinking social initiatives by business. Administrative Science Quarterly, 48(2), 268-305.
Martin, R., Guillaume, Y., Thomas, G., Lee, A., & Epitropaki, O. (2016). Leader–member exchange (LMX) and performance: A meta‐analytic review. Personnel Psychology, 69(1), 67-121.
Milliken, F. J., Morrison, E. W., & Hewlin, P. F. (2003). An exploratory study of employee silence: Issues that employees don’t communicate upward and why. Journal of Management Studies, 40(6), 1453-1476.
Miron-Spektor, E., Ingram, A., Keller, J., Smith, W. K., & Lewis, M. W. (2018). Microfoundations of organizational paradox: The problem is how we think about the problem. Academy of Management Journal, 61(1), 26-45.
Morrison, E. W. (2011). Employee voice behavior: Integration and directions for future research. Academy of Management annals, 5(1), 373-412.
Morrison, E. W. (2014). Employee voice and silence. Annual Review Organization Psychology Organizational Behavior., 1(1), 173-197.
Nemeth, C. J. (1986). Differential contributions of majority and minority influence. Psychological Review, 93(1), 23-32.
Ng, T. W., & Feldman, D. C. (2012). Employee voice behavior: A meta‐analytic test of the conservation of resources framework. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(2), 216-234.
Nordgren, L. F., Van Harreveld, F., & Van Der Pligt, J. (2006). Ambivalence, discomfort, and motivated information processing. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42(2), 252-258.
Pearce, C. L., Wassenaar, C. L., Berson, Y., & Tuval-Mashiach, R. (2019). Toward a theory of meta-paradoxical leadership. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 155, 31-41.
Peterson, R. S., & Nemeth, C. J. (1996). Focus versus flexibility majority and minority influence can both improve performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22(1), 14-23.
Piderit, S. K. (2000). Rethinking resistance and recognizing ambivalence: A multidimensional view of attitudes toward an organizational change. Academy of Management Review, 25(4), 783-794.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Bommer, W. H. (1996). Transformational leader behaviors and substitutes for leadership as determinants of employee satisfaction, commitment, trust, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Management, 22(2), 259-298.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879-903.
Putnam, L. L., Fairhurst, G. T., & Banghart, S. (2016). Contradictions, dialectics, and paradoxes in organizations: A constitutive approach. Academy of Management Annals, 10(1), 65-171.
Raisch, S., & Birkinshaw, J. (2008). Organizational ambidexterity: Antecedents, outcomes, and moderators. Journal of Management, 34(3), 375-409.
Rolison, J. J., Hanoch, Y., & Wood, S. (2012). Risky decision making in younger and older adults: the role of learning. Psychology and Aging, 27(1), 129-140.
Rusbult, C. E., Farrell, D., Rogers, G., & Mainous III, A. G. (1988). Impact of exchange variables on exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect: An integrative model of responses to declining job satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 31(3), 599-627.
Schad, J., Lewis, M. W., Raisch, S., & Smith, W. K. (2016). Paradox research in Management Science: Looking back to move forward. Academy of Management Annals, 10(1), 5-64.
Schriesheim, C. A., Castro, S. L., & Cogliser, C. C. (1999). Leader-member exchange (LMX) research: A comprehensive review of theory, measurement, and data-analytic practices. The Leadership Quarterly, 10(1), 63-113.
Seijts, G. H., & Latham, G. P. (2005). Learning versus performance goals: When should each be used?. Academy of Management Perspectives, 19(1), 124-131.
Sherony, K. M., & Green, S. G. (2002). Coworker exchange: relationships between coworkers, leader-member exchange, and work attitudes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 542-548.
Simons, T. L., & Peterson, R. S. (2000). Task conflict and relationship conflict in top management teams: the pivotal role of intragroup trust. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(1), 102-111.
Smith, K. K., & Berg, D. N. (1987). A paradoxical conception of group dynamics. Human Relations, 40(10), 633-657.
Smith, W. K., & Lewis, M. W. (2011). Toward a theory of paradox: A dynamic equilibrium model of organizing. Academy of Management Review, 36(2), 381-403.
Smith, W. K., & Tushman, M. L. (2005). Managing strategic contradictions: A top management model for managing innovation streams. Organization Science, 16(5), 522-536.
Takeuchi, R., Chen, Z., & Cheung, S. Y. (2012). Applying uncertainty management theory to employee voice behavior: An integrative investigation. Personnel Psychology, 65(2), 283-323.
Thompson, M. M., Zanna, M. P., & Griffin, D. W. (1995). Let’s not be indifferent about (attitudinal) ambivalence. Attitude Strength: Antecedents and Consequences, 4, 361-386.
Tjosvold, D. (1998). Cooperative and competitive goal approach to conflict: Accomplishments and challenges. Applied Psychology, 47(3), 285-313.
Tjosvold, D. (2008). The conflict‐positive organization: It depends upon us. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 29(1), 19-28.
Tjosvold, D., Poon, M., & Yu, Z. Y. (2005). Team effectiveness in China: Cooperative conflict for relationship building. Human Relations, 58(3), 341-367.
Tjosvold, D., Yu, Z. Y., & Hui, C. (2004). Team learning from mistakes: the contribution of cooperative goals and problem‐solving. Journal of Management Studies, 41(7), 1223-1245.
Tucker, L. R., & Lewis, C. (1973). A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis. Psychometrika, 38(1), 1-10.
Tyler, T. R., & Blader, S. L. (2003). The group engagement model: Procedural justice, social identity, and cooperative behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 7(4), 349-361.
Van Dyne, L., & LePine, J. A. (1998). Helping and voice extra-role behaviors: Evidence of construct and predictive validity. Academy of Management Journal, 41(1), 108-119.
Vera, D., & Crossan, M. (2004). Strategic leadership and organizational learning. Academy of Management Review, 29(2), 222-240.
Vidyarthi, P. R., Liden, R. C., Anand, S., Erdogan, B., & Ghosh, S. (2010). Where do I stand? Examining the effects of leader–member exchange social comparison on employee work behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(5), 849-861.
Vince, R., & Broussine, M. (1996). Paradox, defense and attachment: Accessing and working with emotions and relations underlying organizational change. Organization Studies, 17(1), 1-21.
Waldman, D. A., Putnam, L. L., Miron-Spektor, E., & Siegel, D. (2019). The role of paradox theory in decision making and management research. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 155, 1-6.
Wallace, J. C., Edwards, B. D., Paul, J., Burke, M., Christian, M., & Eissa, G. (2016). Change the referent? A meta-analytic investigation of direct and referent-shift consensus models for organizational climate. Journal of Management, 42(4), 838-861.
Walumbwa, F. O., Cropanzano, R., & Goldman, B. M. (2011). How leader–member exchange influences effective work behaviors: Social exchange and internal–external efficacy perspectives. Personnel Psychology, 64(3), 739-770.
Walumbwa, F. O., & Schaubroeck, J. (2009). Leader personality traits and employee voice behavior: mediating roles of ethical leadership and work group psychological safety. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(5), 1275-1286.
Weakland, J. H., Fisch, R., Watzlawick, P., & Bodin, A. M. (1974). Brief therapy: Focused problem resolution. Family Process, 13(2), 141-168.
Wilson, K. S., Sin, H. P., & Conlon, D. E. (2010). What about the leader in leader-member exchange? The impact of resource exchanges and substitutability on the leader. Academy of Management Review, 35(3), 358-372.
Wong, A., Wang, X., Wang, X., & Tjosvold, D. (2020). Ethical leaders manage conflict to develop trust. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 41(1), 133-146
Yen, D. A., Abosag, I., Huang, Y. A., & Nguyen, B. (2017). Guanxi GRX (ganqing, renqing, xinren) and conflict management in Sino-US business relationships. Industrial Marketing Management, 66, 103-114.
Yu, A., Matta, F. K., & Cornfield, B. (2018). Is leader–member exchange differentiation beneficial or detrimental for group effectiveness? A meta-analytic investigation and theoretical integration. Academy of Management Journal, 61(3), 1158-1188.
Zander, A. (1979). The psychology of group processes. Annual Review of Psychology, 30(1), 417-451.
Zheng, W., Kark, R., & Meister, A. L. (2018). Paradox versus dilemma mindset: A theory of how women leaders navigate the tensions between agency and communion. The Leadership Quarterly, 29(5), 584-596.
Zhang, X. A., Cao, Q., & Tjosvold, D. (2011). Linking transformational leadership and team performance: A conflict management approach. Journal of Management Studies, 48(7), 1586-1611.
Zhang, Y., & Han, Y. L. (2019). Paradoxical leader behavior in long-term corporate development: Antecedents and consequences. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 155, 42-54.
Zhang, Y., Waldman, D. A., Han, Y. L., & Li, X. B. (2015). Paradoxical leader behaviors in people management: Antecedents and consequences. Academy of Management Journal, 58(2), 538-566.
Zhou, J., & George, J. M. (2001). When job dissatisfaction leads to creativity: Encouraging the expression of voice. Academy of Management Journal, 44(4), 682-696.
電子全文 Fulltext
論文使用權限 Thesis access permission:校內校外完全公開 unrestricted
開放時間 Available:
校內 Campus:開放下載的時間 available 2021-10-19
校外 Off-campus:開放下載的時間 available 2021-10-19

紙本論文 Printed copies
開放時間 available 2021-10-19

QR Code